What Does the Research Say About Testing?There’s too much testing in schools, most teachers agree, but well-designed classroom tests and quizzes can improve student recall and retention.October 25, 2019
"SETTING THE RIGHT TESTING CONDITIONSTest achievement often reflects outside conditions, and how students do on tests can be shifted substantially by comments they hear and what they receive as feedback from teachers.When teachers tell disadvantaged high school students that an upcoming assessment may be a challenge and that challenge helps the brain grow, students persist more, leading to higher grades, according to 2015 research from Stanford professor David Paunesku. Conversely, simply saying that some students are good at a task without including a growth-mindset message or the explanation that it’s because they are smart harms children’s performance—even when the task is as simple as drawing shapes.Also harmful to student motivation are data walls displaying student scores or assessments. While data walls might be useful for educators, a 2014 study found that displaying them in classrooms led students to compare status rather than improve work.The most positive impact on testing comes from peer or instructor comments that give the student the ability to revise or correct. For example, questions like, “Can you tell me more about what you mean?” or “Can you find evidence for that?” can encourage students to improve engagement with their work. Perhaps not surprisingly, students do well when given multiple chances to learn and improve—and when they’re encouraged to believe that they can."
The fun cartoon above was apparently found in a "Guide to the Velvet Underground and Andy Warhol's Factory" published by the French magazine, Les Inrockuptibles in 1990. It came around the same time the Fondation Cartier pour l'art contemporain (located in Paris) held an exhibition dedicated to Andy Warhol. Of course, Warhol famously took a break from painting in the mid-1960s and, among other things, threw his influence behind the up-and-coming NYC band, The Velvet Underground. Serving as the band's manager, he "produced" VU's first album, which meant designing the album cover and giving the band members -- Lou Reed, John Cale, Sterling Morrison, Maureen Tucker and Nico -- the freedom to make whatever album they pleased, up to a certain point. Above, you can see these same musicians reimagined as Peanuts characters.
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The Velvet Underground as Peanuts Characters: Snoopy Morphs Into Lou Reed, Charlie Brown Into Andy Warhol is a post from: Open Culture. Follow us on Facebook, Twitter, and Google Plus, or get our Daily Email. And don't miss our big collections of Free Online Courses, Free Online Movies, Free eBooks, Free Audio Books, Free Foreign Language Lessons, and MOOCs.
The phrase "farm to table" has enjoyed vogue status in American dining long enough to be facing displacement by an even trendier successor, "farm to fork." These labels reflect a new awareness — or an aspiration to awareness — of where, exactly, the food Americans eat comes from. A vast and fertile land, the United States produces a great deal of its own food, but given the distance of most of its population centers from most of its agricultural centers, it also has to move nearly as great a deal of food over long domestic distances. Here we have the very first high-resolution map of that food supply chain, created by researchers at the University of Illinois studying "food flows between counties in the United States."
"Our map is a comprehensive snapshot of all food flows between counties in the U.S. – grains, fruits and vegetables, animal feed, and processed food items," writes Assistant Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering Megan Konar in an explanatory post at The Conversation. (The top version shows the total tons of food moved, and the bottom one is broken down to the county scale.)
"All Americans, from urban to rural are connected through the food system. Consumers all rely on distant producers; agricultural processing plants; food storage like grain silos and grocery stores; and food transportation systems." The map visualizes such journeys as that of a shipment of corn, which "starts at a farm in Illinois, travels to a grain elevator in Iowa before heading to a feedlot in Kansas, and then travels in animal products being sent to grocery stores in Chicago."
Konar and her collaborators' research arrives at a few surprising conclusions, such as that Los Angeles county is both the largest shipper and receiver of food in the U.S. Not only that, but almost all of the nine counties "most central to the overall structure of the food supply network" are in California. This may surprise anyone who has laid eyes on the sublimely huge agricultural landscapes of the Midwest "Cornbelt." But as Konar notes, "Our estimates are for 2012, an extreme drought year in the Cornbelt. So, in another year, the network may look different." And of the grain produced in the Midwest, much "is transported to the Port of New Orleans for export. This primarily occurs via the waterways of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers."
Konar also warns of troubling frailties: "The infrastructure along these waterways—such as locks 52 and 53—are critical, but have not been overhauled since their construction in 1929," and if they were to fail, "commodity transport and supply chains would be completely disrupted." The analytical minds at Hacker News have been discussing the implications of the research shown on this map, including whether the U.S. food supply chain is really, as one commenter put it, "very brittle and contains many weak points." The American Society of Civil Engineers, as Konar tells Food & Wine, has given the country's civil engineering infrastructure a grade of D+, which at least implies considerable room for improvement. But against what from some angles look like long odds, food keeps getting from American farms to American tables — and American forks, American mouths, American stomachs, and so on.
Based in Seoul, Colin Marshall writes and broadcasts on cities, language, and culture. His projects include the book The Stateless City: a Walk through 21st-Century Los Angeles and the video series The City in Cinema. Follow him on Twitter at @colinmarshall or on Facebook.
The First High-Resolution Map of America’s Food Supply Chain: How It All Really Gets from Farm to Table is a post from: Open Culture. Follow us on Facebook, Twitter, and Google Plus, or get our Daily Email. And don't miss our big collections of Free Online Courses, Free Online Movies, Free eBooks, Free Audio Books, Free Foreign Language Lessons, and MOOCs.
We’ve all felt at various points (maybe at most points) that some media creation has reached us by mistake, that we are not the target audience. 20th century American TV was aimed largely at a white majority, with a parallel, underfunded channel of content aimed at people of color.
So how have things changed? There still seem to be “black shows,” but how to they fit in to a landscape where inclusiveness is a tool by which shows attempt to appeal to everyone (i.e. get all the money)? Comedian/actor/writer/producer Rodney Ramsey joins Mark, Erica, and Brian to discuss the experience of watching outside your demographic, whether identifying with characters requires physical commonalities, “black voice,” and the evolving TV landscape.
We touch on Watchmen, Atlanta, Black Panther, Insecure, Sorry to Bother You, BlacKkKlansman, Tyler Perry, Dear White People, Black Jesus, and the black Herminone issue.
Some of the articles we considered included:
Follow Rodney @Rodney_Ramsey.
Pretty Much Pop #19 Discusses Race and the Target Audience w/ Rodney Ramsey is a post from: Open Culture. Follow us on Facebook, Twitter, and Google Plus, or get our Daily Email. And don't miss our big collections of Free Online Courses, Free Online Movies, Free eBooks, Free Audio Books, Free Foreign Language Lessons, and MOOCs.
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|Como se ilustra este medo?...|
O governista Partido Conservador e o seu principal opositor, o Partido Trabalhista, foram alvos de uma tentativa de ataque cibernético nesta terça-feira (12). De acordo com uma fonte da Reuters, as ações parecem ter acontecido de forma paralela, sem relação entre os responsáveis pelos ataques às duas instituições políticas.
O ataque aos conservadores teve início pouco antes das 13h (horário de Brasília) e durou menos de uma hora. De acordo com a Reuters, os hackers tentaram derrubar os sites dos partidos, mas não obtiveram sucesso.
O Partido Trabalhista não teve a mesma sorte. O movimento de oposição sofreu a primeira tentativa de ataque na segunda-feira (11), mas a operação de suas plataformas não chegou a falhar "graças ao forte sistema de segurança", segundo um porta-voz. Na terça-feira à tarde (12), porém, a página oficial da legenda parou de funcionar, relatam jornalistas da AFP.
A sigla lamentou que "algumas atividades eleitorais" tenham sido temporariamente desaceleradas por medidas de segurança tomadas em resposta ao ciberataque. Além disso, o partido não especificou se possui informações sobre a origem do ataque, mas disse ter notificado as autoridades especializadas.
O líder dos trabalhistas, Jeremy Corbyn, assegurou que nenhuma informação foi hackeada. Durante um comício em Blackpool, no entanto, Corbyn alertou a população sobre a segurança da corrida eleitoral: "Se isso é uma amostra do que pode acontecer durante as eleições, fico particularmente preocupado".
O Reino Unido está no meio de uma campanha para as eleições legislativas antecipadas, convocadas para 12 de dezembro, com o intuito de se livrar do bloqueio político sobre o Brexit.