”Meaningful human control” is a term invented in the political and legal debate on autonomous weapons system, but it is nowadays also used in many other contexts. It is supposed to specify conditions under which an artificial system is under the right kind of control to avoid responsibility gaps: that is, situations in which no moral agent is responsible. Santoni de Sio and Van den Hoven have recently suggested a framework that can be used by system designers to operationalize this kind of control. It is the purpose of this paper to facilitate further operationalization of ”meaningful human control”.
This paper consists of two parts. In the first part I resolve an ambiguity that plagues current operationalizations of MHC. One of the design conditions says that the system should track the reasons of the relevant agents. This condition is ambiguous between the kind of reasons involved. On one interpretation it says that a system should track motivating reasons, while it is concerned with normative reasons on the other. Current participants in the debate interpret the framework as being concerned with (something in the vicinity of) motivating reasons. I argue against this interpretation by showing that meaningful human control requires that a system tracks normative reasons. Moreover, I maintain that an operationalization of meaningful human control that fails to track the right kind of reasons is morally problematic.
When this is properly understood, it can be shown that the framework of MHC is committed to the agent-relativity of reasons. More precisely, I argue in the second part of this paper that if the tracking condition of MHC plays an important role in responsibility attribution (as the proponents of the view maintain), then the framework is incompatible with first-order normative theories that hold that normative reasons are agent-neutral (such as many versions of consequentialism). In the final section I present three ways forward for the proponent of MHC as reason-responsiveness.
In technological societies where excessive screen use and internet addiction are becoming constant temptations, the valuable yet intoxicating pleasures of digital technology suggest a need to recover and repurpose temperance, a virtue emphasized by ancient and medieval philosophers. This article reconstructs this virtue for our technological age by reclaiming the most relevant features of Aristotle’s and Aquinas’s accounts and suggesting five critical revisions needed to adapt the virtue for a contemporary context. The article then draws on this critical interpretation, along with empirical research analyzing the value and dangers of digital technology, to construct a normative account of digital temperance, a virtue that finds a mean between “digital insensibility,” the vice of deficiency, and “digital overindulgence,” the vice of excess. We conclude by showing how this virtue of digital temperance can help to promote human flourishing in a world saturated with tempting technology.
A large part of the explainable AI literature focuses on what explanations are in general, what algorithmic explainability is more specifically, and how to code these principles of explainability into AI systems. Much less attention has been devoted to the question of why algorithmic decisions and systems should be explainable and whether there ought to be a right to explanation and why. We therefore explore the normative landscape of the need for AI to be explainable and individuals having a right to such explanation. This exploration is particularly relevant to the medical domain where the (im)possibility of explainable AI is high on both the research and practitioners’ agenda. The dominant intuition overall is that explainability has and should play a key role in the health context. Notwithstanding the strong normative intuition for having a right to explanation, intuitions can be wrong. So, we need more than an appeal to intuitions when it comes to explaining the normative significance of having a right to explanation when being subject to AI-based decision-making. The aim of the paper is therefore to provide an account of what might underlie the normative intuition. We defend the ‘symmetry thesis’ according to which there is no special normative reason to have a right to explanation when ‘machines’ in the broad sense, make decisions, recommend treatment, discover tumors, and so on. Instead, we argue that we have a right to explanation in cases that involve automated processing that significantly affect our core deliberative agency and which we do not understand, because we have a general moral right to explanation when choices are made which significantly affect us but which we do not understand.
In this paper, I analyse a specific kind of loneliness that can be experienced in the networked life, namely “extended loneliness”. I claim that loneliness—conceived of as stemming from a lack of satisfying relationships to others—can arise from an abundance of connections in the online sphere. Extended loneliness, in these cases, does not result from a lack of connections to other people. On the contrary, it consists in the complex affective experience of both lacking and longing for meaningful relationships while being connected to many people online. The recursive interaction with a digital assistant in a smart flat is my key example for defining the contours of this specific kind of loneliness that emerges when hyperconnectivity becomes pervasive in the user’s daily-life. Drawing on Sherry Turkle’s work and employing the conceptual framework of the extended mind, I analyse the specific characteristics of extended loneliness and explore its phenomenology.
The paper explores some normative challenges concerning the integration of Machine Learning (ML) algorithms into anticorruption in public institutions. The challenges emerge from the tensions between an approach treating ML algorithms as allies to an exclusively legalistic conception of anticorruption and an approach seeing them within an institutional ethics of office accountability. We explore two main challenges. One concerns the variable opacity of some ML algorithms, which may affect public officeholders’ capacity to account for institutional processes relying upon ML techniques. The other pinpoints the risk that automating certain institutional processes may weaken officeholders’ direct engagement to take forward-looking responsibility for the working of their institution. We discuss why both challenges matter to see how ML algorithms may enhance (and not hinder) institutional answerability practices.
Socio-technical systems (STS) have become prominent platforms for online social interactions. Yet, they are still struggling to incorporate basic social ideas for many different and new online activities. This has resulted in unintended exposure of users’ personal data and a rise in online threats as users have now become a desirable target for malicious activities. To address such challenges, various researchers have argued that STS should support user-oriented configurations to protect their users from online social abuse. Some methodologies have also been proposed to appreciate the integration of social values in the design of information systems, but they often lack an application mechanism. This paper presents a framework for the application of the socio-technical design methodology to incorporate social standards in the design of STS. The proposed framework exemplifies the socio-technical design approach by considering a list of social standards, followed by their mapping onto corresponding technical specifications. Based on these two sets, the framework highlights various individual, inter-group, and intra-group interactions and their supporting tools for STS governance. A conversation about the integration of social standards in STS is already materializing, therefore, a comprehensive framework to apply these standards in STS is entailed.
No âmbito do Projeto Erasmus+ n.º 2019-1-PT01-KA101-060330 " Bridging the GAP - Boas Práticas para uma Gestão Integrada do Currículo", foram realizadas entre fevereiro e setembro de 2022, 90 mobilidades, englobando Cursos Estruturados, Job Shadowing e uma Missão de Ensino.
Os diversos participantes, de acordo com o seu Projeto de Disseminação, de formas diversificados, mas sempre numa lógica de trabalho de rede colaborativa, partilhando as práticas de uma forma articulada e integrada, disseminaram nas Escolas do Consórcio, em Congressos, artigos na imprensa local, redes sociais, o melhor do que fizeram, experienciaram, inovaram, criaram, viveram.
Estamos na fase de com alguma sistematização dar visibilidade, aqui, na nossa página às partilhas.
Hoje com um curso na FCL Bruxelas.
Na semana entre 4 e 8 de julho deste ano, um grupo de seis docentes (três do Agrupamento de escolas de Mangualde e três do Agrupamento de Escolas de Sátão) deslocaram-se a Bruxelas para frequentarem o curso de formação Future Classroom Lab Summer Academy: Enhancing creativity and innovation in my classroom.
O curso teve lugar na European Schoolnet, uma rede de 34 ministérios da Educação de toda a Europa, que lidera a inovação educacional ao nível Europeu. Considerada um dos maiores think tank internacionais, a European Schoolnet coordena serviços chave na educação europeia em nome da Comissão Europeia, dos Ministérios da Educação e de parceiros da indústria.
Esta formação foi organizada pelo centro de formação EDUFOR, no âmbito do projeto ERASMUS+ Bridging the GAP, que pretende proporcionar aos docentes dos diversos Agrupamentos do consórcio a possibilidade de adquirir ou desenvolver metodologias e estratégias modernas e diversificadas, para aplicar em sala de aula, com o intuito de melhorar as práticas letivas e a forma como os nossos alunos aprendem.
Much of the debate on the ethics of self-driving cars has revolved around trolley scenarios. This paper instead takes up the political or institutional question of who should decide how a self-driving car drives. Specifically, this paper is on the question of whether and why passengers should be able to control how their car drives. The paper reviews existing arguments—those for passenger ethics settings and for mandatory ethics settings respectively—and argues that they fail. Although the arguments are not successful, they serve as the basis to formulate desiderata that any approach to regulating the driving behavior of self-driving cars ought to fulfill. The paper then proposes one way of designing passenger ethics settings that meets these desiderata.
Automation does not always replace human labour altogether: there is an intermediate stage of human co-existence with machines, including robots, in a production process. Cobots are robots designed to participate at close quarters with humans in such a process. I shall discuss the possible role of cobots in facilitating the eventual total elimination of human operators from production in which co-bots are initially involved. This issue is complicated by another: cobots are often introduced to workplaces with the message (from managers) that they will not replace human operators but will rather assist human operators and make their jobs more interesting and responsible. If, in the process of learning to assist human operators, robots acquire the skills of human operators, then the promise of avoiding replacement can turn out to be false, and if a human operator loses his job, he has been harmed twice over: once by unemployment and once by deception. I shall suggest that this moral risk attends some cobots more than others.
Recent years have yielded many discussions on how to endow autonomous agents with the ability to make ethical decisions, and the need for explicit ethical reasoning and transparency is a persistent theme in this literature. We present a modular and transparent approach to equip autonomous agents with the ability to comply with ethical prescriptions, while still enacting pre-learned optimal behaviour. Our approach relies on a normative supervisor module, that integrates a theorem prover for defeasible deontic logic within the control loop of a reinforcement learning agent. The supervisor operates as both an event recorder and an on-the-fly compliance checker w.r.t. an external norm base. We successfully evaluated our approach with several tests using variations of the game Pac-Man, subject to a variety of “ethical” constraints.
A Review of:
Mathews, E. (2021). Representational belonging in collections: A comparative study of leading trade publications in architecture. Library Resources & Technical Services, 65(3). https://journals.ala.org/index.php/lrts/article/view/7486
Objective – To measure how well women are reflected, specifically women of colour, in architectural trade publications.
Design – Quantitative diversity audit.
Setting – Architecture field.
Subjects – Architectural firms whose work appeared in four trade publications (Architectural Record, Architectural Review, l’Architecture d’Aujourd’hui, and Detail) in 2019.
Methods – A diversity audit was selected to analyze the representation of various subsets of women within the architecture core collections. The Avery index was used to identify architectural firms featured in four trade publications. The quantitative study collected demographic data from 354 firms, featuring 726 women. Within these firms, the author sought to identify women leaders and how many of those were women of colour. The author then used four guiding questions to analyze the journals: (1) individual journals’ coverage; (2) size of the firm; (3) type of firm, and (4) firms which issued a statement in support of the Black Lives Matter Movement and the likelihood of a woman of colour being in a leadership role.
Main Results – The key results for the studies guiding questions were: (1) the overall average of women leaders in the firms covered in the journals was 24% and for women of colour 6%. Architectural Record featured the highest proportion of firms with women in leadership roles (28%) and those with women of colour as leaders (9%); (2) women leadership was higher in smaller firms (large 24%; medium 20%; small 31%) as was women of colour in leadership (large 3%; medium 6%; small 9%); (3) insufficient data was found for meaningful analysis of the representation of women according to specialization within the architectural field; and (4) the firms that issued clear BLM statements were highest in the US (15%) overall. Architectural Record, a US publication, featured the highest percentage of firms that made clear BLM statements (27%).
Conclusion – The study concluded that there was an underrepresentation of women, women of colour, and Black women in architectural trade publications. The author’s position is that collection development practices should adequately reflect the library users they serve with acquisition actions that increase a more equitable representation. The author stated that the practical implications for this study fall under the rubric of remediation in the following areas: (1) balance inequities in architectural programs by increasing enrollment of women; (2) identify collections which lack inclusivity, balance them with curated electronic resources; and (3) collection policies should reflect readership and encourage a sense of professional belonging. In future studies, the author acknowledges that a qualitative study based on responses from architects would complement the current study.
Objectives – This study sought to determine the role social media plays in shaping library services and spaces, and how queries are received, responded to, and tracked differently by different types of libraries.
Methods – In April and May of 2021, researchers conducted a nine-question survey (Appendix A) targeted to social media managers across various types of libraries in the United States, soliciting a mix of quantitative and qualitative results on prevalence of social media interactions, perceived changes to services and spaces as a result of those interactions, and how social media messaging fits within the library’s question reporting or tracking workflow. The researchers then extracted a set of thematic codes from the qualitative data to perform further statistical analysis.
Results – The survey received 805 responses in total, with response rates varying from question to question. Of these, 362reported receiving a question or suggestion via social media at least once per month, with 247 reporting a frequency of less than once per month. Respondents expressed a wide range of changes to their library services or spaces as a result, including themes of clarification, marketing, reach, restriction, collections, access, service, policy, and collaboration. Responses were garnered from all types of libraries, with public and academic libraries representing the majority.
Conclusion – While there remains a disparity in how different types of libraries utilize social media for soliciting questions and suggestions on library services and spaces, those libraries that participate in the social media conversation are using it as a resource to learn more from their patrons and communities and ultimately are better situated to serve their population.
A Review of:
Giannopoulos, E., Snow, M., Manley, M., McEwan, K., Stechkevich, A., Giuliani, M. E., & Papadakos, J. (2021). Identifying gaps in consumer health library collections: A retrospective review. Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA, 109(4), 656–666. https://doi.org/10.5195/jmla.2021.895
Objective – The objective of this study was to determine if search request forms, which are used when a patron’s request for information cannot be fulfilled at the time of contact with the library team, can be used to identify gaps in consumer health library collections while offering some explanation for the gaps.
Design – Retrospective case study of search request forms.
Setting – A consumer health library at an academic cancer center in Canada.
Subjects – Library patrons: Patients, Patient family, other members of the center, and unspecified.
Methods – The researchers reviewed 260 search request forms submitted between 2013 and 2020. Of those, 249 records met inclusion criteria and were analyzed and coded. Coding included patron type, cancer diagnosis, information delivery, and content themes. This information was then used to identify gaps in the library collection and the reasons for the gaps.
Main Results – Patients were the primary patrons, asking 62.9% of the questions, followed by family members at 22.5%. The most common cancer type researched was breast at 23.3%, then hematology at 16.5%. gynecology, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and sarcoma were next between 10% and 8.4%. The remaining cancer types ranged between 6.0 % and 2.0%, with brain being the lowest. Of the questions asked, 60% revealed a gap in the collection. The gaps included rare cancer diagnosis, treatment options, and prognosis. There were data collected on why the information was unavailable. While 53% of the gaps were a result of limited health consumer information, 25% were a result of paywall restrictions or content restricted to members.
Conclusion – Search request forms can be an effective tool in evaluating gaps in collections. In this study, the researchers were able to identify that breast cancer patients made up the most significant proportion of patrons, and the biggest gaps in the collection were related to their treatment decisions. One opportunity to bridge this gap is through collaboration with clinical teams in developing patient friendly resources on this topic. In addition, inter-institutional collaboration between libraries may also help. Continued review of forms can help inform collection decisions to better meet the needs of patrons.
Objective – Many of us involved in the library and information sector are members of associations that represent the interests of our profession. These associations are often key to enabling us to provide evidence based practice by offering opportunities such as professional development. We invest resources in membership so we must be able to inform those in charge about our needs, expectations, and level of satisfaction. Governing bodies and committees, therefore, need a method to capture these views and plan strategy accordingly. The committee of the Health Sciences Libraries Group (HSLG) of the Library Association of Ireland wanted to enable members to give their views on the group, to understand what aspects of a library association are important to librarians in Ireland, and to learn about the reasons for and against membership.
Methods – Surveys are a useful way of obtaining evidence to inform policy and practice. Although relatively quick to produce, their design and dissemination can pose challenges. The HSLG committee developed an online survey questionnaire for members and non-members (anyone eligible to join our library association). We primarily used multiple choice, matrix, and contextual/demographic questions, with skip logic enabling choices of relevance to respondents. Our literature review provided guidance in questionnaire design and suggested four themes that we used to develop options and to analyse results.
Results – The survey was made available for two weeks and we received 49 eligible responses. Analysis of results and reflection on the process suggested aspects that we would change in terms of the language used in our questionnaire and dissemination methods. There were also aspects that show good potential, including the four themes that were used to understand what matters to members: expertise (professional development), community (connecting and engaging), profession (sustaining and strengthening), and support (financial and organizational supports). Overall, our survey provided rich data that met our objectives.
Conclusion – It is essential that those who are governing any group make evidence based decisions, and a well-planned survey can support this. Our article outlines the elements of our questionnaire and process that didn’t work, and those that show promise. We hope that lessons learned will help anyone planning a survey, particularly associations who wish to ascertain the views of their members and others who are eligible to join. With some proposed modifications, our questionnaire could provide a template for future study in this area.
Results – Deductive coding indicated low policy compliance with ALA guidelines. None of the 78 policies contained all 20 codes derived from the guidelines, and only 6% contained more than half. No individual policy contained more than 75% of the content recommended by ALA. Inductive coding revealed themes that expanded on the ALA guidelines or addressed emerging privacy concerns such as library-initiated data collection and sharing patron data with institutional partners. No single inductive code appeared in more than 63% of policies.
Conclusion – Academic library privacy policies appear to be evolving to address emerging concerns such as library-initiated data collection, invisible data collection via vendor platforms, and data sharing with institutional partners. However, this study indicates that most libraries do not provide patrons with a policy that comprehensively addresses how patrons’ data are obtained, used, and shared by the library.
A Review of:
Belvadi, M. (2021). Longevity of print book use at a small public university: A 30-year longitudinal study. Insights, 34(1), 26. http://doi.org/10.1629/uksg.562
Objective – To inform future collecting decisions by ascertaining the circulation longevity of print books within an academic library.
Design – Longitudinal data analysis of two circulation datasets.
Setting – Library catalogue of a small public university in Canada.
Subjects – 10,002 print books acquired between 1991 and 1996 with a first circulation year between 1991 and 2000 (part 1); 4,060 print books acquired and with a first circulation year between 2008 and 2011 (part 2A); 35,860 print books acquired since 1991 with a first circulation year between 2008 and 2011 (parts 2B).
Methods – The researcher established two datasets by selecting books with viable circulation data from the institution’s holdings. Using each book’s Library of Congress classification number, the researcher mapped each book to three other categorization schemes. The first scheme, Becher-Biglan typology, categorizes books as belonging to either applied or hard and pure or soft fields of study. The second scheme, called in the paper “major subjects,” uses a traditional broad subject categorization (e.g. arts, sciences, health, etc.), and the third scheme categorizes books by the academic programs at the researcher’s institution. The researcher then analyzed the circulation data through the lens of these three categorization schemes.
Main Results – Part 1, which considered the collection’s older circulated books, found that books had an average circulation longevity of 10 years. About 14% of books circulated for only one year, and about 24% of books circulated for less than five years. Among the newer books considered in Part 2, 37% circulated for just one year and 64% had a circulation longevity of four years.
Conclusion – Books in applied and hard fields generally have greater longevity compared to pure and soft fields. Books in professional and STEM fields generally have greater longevity than books in the humanities and arts, contrary to conventional library wisdom. Print book circulation longevity appears to be dropping. Subscription and on-demand acquisitions options may prove to be a more efficacious use of resources than ‘just-in-case’ print collecting.
A Review of:
Roig-Marín, A., & Prieto, S. (2021). English literature students' perspectives on digital resources in a Spanish university. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 47(6). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acalib.2021.102461
Objective – To assess students’ perception, use, and format preferences of library resources.
Design – Online survey questionnaire.
Setting – A public university in Spain.
Subjects – 134 second-year, third-year, and fourth-year undergraduate English language and literature students.
Methods – An anonymous survey was built using Google Forms and shared with eligible participants during March and April 2021. Survey participation was voluntary, although students were encouraged to respond and were provided with class time to do so. Nonetheless, due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic at the time of this study, courses were taught in a hybrid (both in-person and online) format and class attendance was not mandatory. The survey consisted of six multiple choice and four open-ended questions, and answers were required for all 10 questions.
Main Results – Respondents were mostly satisfied with the available resources in supporting their studies in English literature and culture, with the majority preferring to access resources online (51%) or through both online and print formats (14%). Convenience was the most commonly cited reason for favoring online access, while improved processing and learning were mentioned by those preferring print. A majority of respondents also indicated they have used online resources from either their home university library (72%) or other libraries (55%). Conversely, 29% of the respondents were unable to identify any specific electronic resources.
Conclusion – Study results indicate that Spanish undergraduate students majoring in English literature generally have a positive perception of library resources in supporting their studies and prefer online access over print. However, many of these students may also have an incorrect or limited understanding of how to differentiate between library resources, general websites, web search engines, or computer programs.
A Review of:
Liew, C. L., Yeates, J., & Lilley, S. C. (2021). Digitized Indigenous knowledge collections: Impact on cultural knowledge transmission, social connections, and cultural identity. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 72(12), 1575–1592. https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.24536
Objective – To explore the impact and significance of digitized and digital Indigenous knowledge collections (D-IKC) on knowledge transmission, social connections, and cultural identity.
Design – Phenomenological explorative study.
Setting – New Zealand.
Subjects – Eight D-IKC users, including three academics, four undergraduate students, and one postgraduate student. Six participants were women and two were men. All participants were of Māori descent.
Methods – Eight semi-structured interviews ranging from 40 to 75 minutes were conducted in a face-to-face setting between June 2019 and August 2020. Participants were recruited through the researchers’ personal and professional networks using a purposeful sampling technique. Potential participants were provided with a copy of the interview guide during recruitment.
Main Results – The article reports on seven areas of results: use of collections, accessibility and discoverability, collection features and functionality, sharing of knowledge resources, reuse and repurposing of resources, perceived benefits of cultural and social connections, and development and provision of D-IKC. Participants use D-IKC for academic work including coursework, teaching, and research as well as for personal interest and development, such as researching whakapapa (genealogy) and whenua (land) information, language revitalization projects, and creative works. All participants expressed preference for online access to the collections. Participants discussed barriers to access not only for themselves but also for other members of their community, including difficulty using the platforms on mobile devices, lack of awareness about the collections, inadequate digital access, and lack of digital competence for searching and navigation. Some participants noted inaccuracies in transcriptions that could lead to alteration of the meaning of words and deter engagement with D-IKC. All participants reported having shared knowledge resources they encountered in digitized collections. Primary reasons for sharing information included helping classmates get access to educational materials and sharing resources with whānau (extended family) for genealogical research and land claims. Common reasons for reusing or repurposing materials included language and dialect revitalization and creative work and performance. Participants said they were more likely to share materials related to their tribal affiliation. Participants also discussed information that would not be appropriate to share, such as information that is considered tapu (sacred), particularly if the material is outside of their tribal roots. Notably, all participants said they had come across resources and information in D-IKC that should not be openly accessible at all. Participants reported having gained linguistic and cultural knowledge as well as information about their cultural identity through their use of D-IKC. Sharing this knowledge with their communities has helped strengthen social connections. Some participants noted that their hapū (subtribe) planned to set up their own digital archives.
Conclusion – Overall, D-IKC can have a beneficial impact on individual and collective social identity and social ties. Making these materials available online facilitates their wider access and use. However, memory institutions (MIs) need to take steps to ensure that cultural values and knowledge are embedded into the development and stewardship of the collections. MIs should employ more specialists from Indigenous communities with deep understanding of customary practices and principles, encourage other staff to develop their understanding of the language and customs of the Indigenous communities that their collections are rooted in, and develop partnerships with Indigenous authorities to help guide them on issues relating to sacred knowledge and genealogical materials. The authors also recommend that MIs develop outreach programs to raise awareness of the resources and to improve digital access and competencies.