This qualitative case study provides fresh understandings about first year undergraduate international students’ library and information use at an Australian university, and their associated information literacy learning needs. The findings provide evidence to inform the development of library spaces and information literacy responses that enhance international students’ transition and learning. The study was conducted in 2015 as part of a project that simultaneously investigated the same topic at three US universities. This paper presents the case study context, reviews relevant literature and identifies gaps in research about international students’ library use and information literacy, and outlines the qualitative methodology—questionnaire, interviews and thematic analysis. The findings reveal international students’ lived experiences of using the library and information, in general and for assignments. After presenting the students’ recommendations to the library, the paper discusses the wider implications of the findings for university libraries and information literacy innovation.