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Antes de ontemEvidence Based Library and Information Practice
  • 19 de Setembro de 2022, 00:00

Women of Colour and Black Women Leaders are Underrepresented in Architectural Firms Featured in Key Trade Publications

Por Nandi Prince

A Review of:

Mathews, E. (2021). Representational belonging in collections: A comparative study of leading trade publications in architecture. Library Resources & Technical Services, 65(3).


Objective – To measure how well women are reflected, specifically women of colour, in architectural trade publications.

Design – Quantitative diversity audit.

Setting – Architecture field.

Subjects – Architectural firms whose work appeared in four trade publications (Architectural Record, Architectural Review, l’Architecture d’Aujourd’hui, and Detail) in 2019.

Methods – A diversity audit was selected to analyze the representation of various subsets of women within the architecture core collections. The Avery index was used to identify architectural firms featured in four trade publications. The quantitative study collected demographic data from 354 firms, featuring 726 women. Within these firms, the author sought to identify women leaders and how many of those were women of colour. The author then used four guiding questions to analyze the journals: (1) individual journals’ coverage; (2) size of the firm; (3) type of firm, and (4) firms which issued a statement in support of the Black Lives Matter Movement and the likelihood of a woman of colour being in a leadership role.

Main Results – The key results for the studies guiding questions were: (1) the overall average of women leaders in the firms covered in the journals was 24% and for women of colour 6%. Architectural Record featured the highest proportion of firms with women in leadership roles (28%) and those with women of colour as leaders (9%); (2) women leadership was higher in smaller firms (large 24%; medium 20%; small 31%) as was women of colour in leadership (large 3%; medium 6%; small 9%); (3) insufficient data was found for meaningful analysis of the representation of women according to specialization within the architectural field; and (4) the firms that issued clear BLM statements were highest in the US (15%) overall. Architectural Record, a US publication, featured the highest percentage of firms that made clear BLM statements (27%).

Conclusion – The study concluded that there was an underrepresentation of women, women of colour, and Black women in architectural trade publications. The author’s position is that collection development practices should adequately reflect the library users they serve with acquisition actions that increase a more equitable representation. The author stated that the practical implications for this study fall under the rubric of remediation in the following areas: (1) balance inequities in architectural programs by increasing enrollment of women; (2) identify collections which lack inclusivity, balance them with curated electronic resources; and (3) collection policies should reflect readership and encourage a sense of professional belonging. In future studies, the author acknowledges that a qualitative study based on responses from architects would complement the current study.

  • 19 de Setembro de 2022, 00:00

Doing More with a DM: A Survey on Library Social Media Engagement

Por Jason Wardell

Objectives – This study sought to determine the role social media plays in shaping library services and spaces, and how queries are received, responded to, and tracked differently by different types of libraries.

Methods – In April and May of 2021, researchers conducted a nine-question survey (Appendix A) targeted to social media managers across various types of libraries in the United States, soliciting a mix of quantitative and qualitative results on prevalence of social media interactions, perceived changes to services and spaces as a result of those interactions, and how social media messaging fits within the library’s question reporting or tracking workflow. The researchers then extracted a set of thematic codes from the qualitative data to perform further statistical analysis.

Results – The survey received 805 responses in total, with response rates varying from question to question. Of these, 362reported receiving a question or suggestion via social media at least once per month, with 247 reporting a frequency of less than once per month. Respondents expressed a wide range of changes to their library services or spaces as a result, including themes of clarification, marketing, reach, restriction, collections, access, service, policy, and collaboration. Responses were garnered from all types of libraries, with public and academic libraries representing the majority.

Conclusion – While there remains a disparity in how different types of libraries utilize social media for soliciting questions and suggestions on library services and spaces, those libraries that participate in the social media conversation are using it as a resource to learn more from their patrons and communities and ultimately are better situated to serve their population.

  • 19 de Setembro de 2022, 00:00

The Use of Search Request Forms Can Identify Gaps in a Consumer Health Library Collection

Por Matthew Bridgeman

A Review of:

Giannopoulos, E., Snow, M., Manley, M., McEwan, K., Stechkevich, A., Giuliani, M. E., & Papadakos, J. (2021). Identifying gaps in consumer health library collections: A retrospective review. Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA, 109(4), 656–666.


Objective – The objective of this study was to determine if search request forms, which are used when a patron’s request for information cannot be fulfilled at the time of contact with the library team, can be used to identify gaps in consumer health library collections while offering some explanation for the gaps.

Design – Retrospective case study of search request forms.

Setting – A consumer health library at an academic cancer center in Canada.

Subjects – Library patrons: Patients, Patient family, other members of the center, and unspecified.

Methods – The researchers reviewed 260 search request forms submitted between 2013 and 2020. Of those, 249 records met inclusion criteria and were analyzed and coded. Coding included patron type, cancer diagnosis, information delivery, and content themes. This information was then used to identify gaps in the library collection and the reasons for the gaps.

Main Results – Patients were the primary patrons, asking 62.9% of the questions, followed by family members at 22.5%. The most common cancer type researched was breast at 23.3%, then hematology at 16.5%. gynecology, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and sarcoma were next between 10% and 8.4%. The remaining cancer types ranged between 6.0 % and 2.0%, with brain being the lowest. Of the questions asked, 60% revealed a gap in the collection. The gaps included rare cancer diagnosis, treatment options, and prognosis. There were data collected on why the information was unavailable. While 53% of the gaps were a result of limited health consumer information, 25% were a result of paywall restrictions or content restricted to members.

Conclusion – Search request forms can be an effective tool in evaluating gaps in collections. In this study, the researchers were able to identify that breast cancer patients made up the most significant proportion of patrons, and the biggest gaps in the collection were related to their treatment decisions. One opportunity to bridge this gap is through collaboration with clinical teams in developing patient friendly resources on this topic. In addition, inter-institutional collaboration between libraries may also help. Continued review of forms can help inform collection decisions to better meet the needs of patrons.

  • 19 de Setembro de 2022, 00:00

Developing a Library Association Membership Survey: Challenges and Promising Themes

Por Mary Dunne

Objective – Many of us involved in the library and information sector are members of associations that represent the interests of our profession. These associations are often key to enabling us to provide evidence based practice by offering opportunities such as professional development. We invest resources in membership so we must be able to inform those in charge about our needs, expectations, and level of satisfaction. Governing bodies and committees, therefore, need a method to capture these views and plan strategy accordingly. The committee of the Health Sciences Libraries Group (HSLG) of the Library Association of Ireland wanted to enable members to give their views on the group, to understand what aspects of a library association are important to librarians in Ireland, and to learn about the reasons for and against membership.

Methods – Surveys are a useful way of obtaining evidence to inform policy and practice. Although relatively quick to produce, their design and dissemination can pose challenges. The HSLG committee developed an online survey questionnaire for members and non-members (anyone eligible to join our library association). We primarily used multiple choice, matrix, and contextual/demographic questions, with skip logic enabling choices of relevance to respondents. Our literature review provided guidance in questionnaire design and suggested four themes that we used to develop options and to analyse results.

Results – The survey was made available for two weeks and we received 49 eligible responses. Analysis of results and reflection on the process suggested aspects that we would change in terms of the language used in our questionnaire and dissemination methods. There were also aspects that show good potential, including the four themes that were used to understand what matters to members: expertise (professional development), community (connecting and engaging), profession (sustaining and strengthening), and support (financial and organizational supports). Overall, our survey provided rich data that met our objectives.

Conclusion – It is essential that those who are governing any group make evidence based decisions, and a well-planned survey can support this. Our article outlines the elements of our questionnaire and process that didn’t work, and those that show promise. We hope that lessons learned will help anyone planning a survey, particularly associations who wish to ascertain the views of their members and others who are eligible to join. With some proposed modifications, our questionnaire could provide a template for future study in this area.

  • 19 de Setembro de 2022, 00:00

An Examination of Academic Library Privacy Policy Compliance with Professional Guidelines

Por Greta Valentine

Objective – The tension between upholding privacy as a professional value and the ubiquity of collecting patrons’ data to provide online services is now common in libraries. Privacy policies that explain how the library collects and uses patron records are one way libraries can provide transparency around this issue. This study examines 78 policies collected from the public websites of U.S. Association of Research Libraries’ (ARL) members and examines these policies for compliance with American Library Association (ALA) guidelines on privacy policy content. This overview can provide library policy makers with a sense of trends in the privacy policies of research-intensive academic libraries, and a sense of the gaps where current policies (and guidelines) may not adequately address current privacy concerns.

Methods – Content analysis was applied to analyze all privacy policies. A deductive codebook based on ALA privacy policy guidelines was first used to code all policies. The authors used consensus coding to arrive at agreement about where codes were present. An inductive codebook was then developed to address themes present in the text that remained uncoded after initial deductive coding.

Results – Deductive coding indicated low policy compliance with ALA guidelines. None of the 78 policies contained all 20 codes derived from the guidelines, and only 6% contained more than half. No individual policy contained more than 75% of the content recommended by ALA. Inductive coding revealed themes that expanded on the ALA guidelines or addressed emerging privacy concerns such as library-initiated data collection and sharing patron data with institutional partners. No single inductive code appeared in more than 63% of policies.

Conclusion – Academic library privacy policies appear to be evolving to address emerging concerns such as library-initiated data collection, invisible data collection via vendor platforms, and data sharing with institutional partners. However, this study indicates that most libraries do not provide patrons with a policy that comprehensively addresses how patrons’ data are obtained, used, and shared by the library.

  • 19 de Setembro de 2022, 00:00

Print Book Circulation Longevity Dropping at a Small Canadian University Library

Por Jordan Patterson

A Review of:

Belvadi, M. (2021). Longevity of print book use at a small public university: A 30-year longitudinal study. Insights, 34(1), 26.


Objective – To inform future collecting decisions by ascertaining the circulation longevity of print books within an academic library.

Design – Longitudinal data analysis of two circulation datasets.

Setting – Library catalogue of a small public university in Canada.

Subjects – 10,002 print books acquired between 1991 and 1996 with a first circulation year between 1991 and 2000 (part 1); 4,060 print books acquired and with a first circulation year between 2008 and 2011 (part 2A); 35,860 print books acquired since 1991 with a first circulation year between 2008 and 2011 (parts 2B).

Methods – The researcher established two datasets by selecting books with viable circulation data from the institution’s holdings. Using each book’s Library of Congress classification number, the researcher mapped each book to three other categorization schemes. The first scheme, Becher-Biglan typology, categorizes books as belonging to either applied or hard and pure or soft fields of study. The second scheme, called in the paper “major subjects,” uses a traditional broad subject categorization (e.g. arts, sciences, health, etc.), and the third scheme categorizes books by the academic programs at the researcher’s institution. The researcher then analyzed the circulation data through the lens of these three categorization schemes.

Main Results – Part 1, which considered the collection’s older circulated books, found that books had an average circulation longevity of 10 years. About 14% of books circulated for only one year, and about 24% of books circulated for less than five years. Among the newer books considered in Part 2, 37% circulated for just one year and 64% had a circulation longevity of four years.

Conclusion – Books in applied and hard fields generally have greater longevity compared to pure and soft fields. Books in professional and STEM fields generally have greater longevity than books in the humanities and arts, contrary to conventional library wisdom. Print book circulation longevity appears to be dropping. Subscription and on-demand acquisitions options may prove to be a more efficacious use of resources than ‘just-in-case’ print collecting.

  • 19 de Setembro de 2022, 00:00

English Literature Students at Spanish University Have Positive Perceptions Towards but Limited Understanding of Online Resources

Por Lisa Shen

A Review of:

Roig-Marín, A., & Prieto, S. (2021). English literature students' perspectives on digital resources in a Spanish university. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 47(6).


Objective – To assess students’ perception, use, and format preferences of library resources.

Design – Online survey questionnaire.

Setting – A public university in Spain.

Subjects – 134 second-year, third-year, and fourth-year undergraduate English language and literature students.

Methods – An anonymous survey was built using Google Forms and shared with eligible participants during March and April 2021. Survey participation was voluntary, although students were encouraged to respond and were provided with class time to do so. Nonetheless, due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic at the time of this study, courses were taught in a hybrid (both in-person and online) format and class attendance was not mandatory. The survey consisted of six multiple choice and four open-ended questions, and answers were required for all 10 questions.

Main Results – Respondents were mostly satisfied with the available resources in supporting their studies in English literature and culture, with the majority preferring to access resources online (51%) or through both online and print formats (14%). Convenience was the most commonly cited reason for favoring online access, while improved processing and learning were mentioned by those preferring print. A majority of respondents also indicated they have used online resources from either their home university library (72%) or other libraries (55%). Conversely, 29% of the respondents were unable to identify any specific electronic resources.

Conclusion – Study results indicate that Spanish undergraduate students majoring in English literature generally have a positive perception of library resources in supporting their studies and prefer online access over print. However, many of these students may also have an incorrect or limited understanding of how to differentiate between library resources, general websites, web search engines, or computer programs.

  • 19 de Setembro de 2022, 00:00

Digitized Indigenous Knowledge Collections Can Have Beneficial Impact on Cultural Identity and Social Ties

Por Hilary Bussell

A Review of:

Liew, C. L., Yeates, J., & Lilley, S. C. (2021). Digitized Indigenous knowledge collections: Impact on cultural knowledge transmission, social connections, and cultural identity. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 72(12), 1575–1592.


Objective – To explore the impact and significance of digitized and digital Indigenous knowledge collections (D-IKC) on knowledge transmission, social connections, and cultural identity.

Design – Phenomenological explorative study.

Setting – New Zealand.

Subjects – Eight D-IKC users, including three academics, four undergraduate students, and one postgraduate student. Six participants were women and two were men. All participants were of Māori descent.

Methods – Eight semi-structured interviews ranging from 40 to 75 minutes were conducted in a face-to-face setting between June 2019 and August 2020. Participants were recruited through the researchers’ personal and professional networks using a purposeful sampling technique. Potential participants were provided with a copy of the interview guide during recruitment.

Main Results – The article reports on seven areas of results: use of collections, accessibility and discoverability, collection features and functionality, sharing of knowledge resources, reuse and repurposing of resources, perceived benefits of cultural and social connections, and development and provision of D-IKC. Participants use D-IKC for academic work including coursework, teaching, and research as well as for personal interest and development, such as researching whakapapa (genealogy) and whenua (land) information, language revitalization projects, and creative works. All participants expressed preference for online access to the collections. Participants discussed barriers to access not only for themselves but also for other members of their community, including difficulty using the platforms on mobile devices, lack of awareness about the collections, inadequate digital access, and lack of digital competence for searching and navigation. Some participants noted inaccuracies in transcriptions that could lead to alteration of the meaning of words and deter engagement with D-IKC. All participants reported having shared knowledge resources they encountered in digitized collections. Primary reasons for sharing information included helping classmates get access to educational materials and sharing resources with whānau (extended family) for genealogical research and land claims. Common reasons for reusing or repurposing materials included language and dialect revitalization and creative work and performance. Participants said they were more likely to share materials related to their tribal affiliation. Participants also discussed information that would not be appropriate to share, such as information that is considered tapu (sacred), particularly if the material is outside of their tribal roots. Notably, all participants said they had come across resources and information in D-IKC that should not be openly accessible at all. Participants reported having gained linguistic and cultural knowledge as well as information about their cultural identity through their use of D-IKC. Sharing this knowledge with their communities has helped strengthen social connections. Some participants noted that their hapū (subtribe) planned to set up their own digital archives.

Conclusion – Overall, D-IKC can have a beneficial impact on individual and collective social identity and social ties. Making these materials available online facilitates their wider access and use. However, memory institutions (MIs) need to take steps to ensure that cultural values and knowledge are embedded into the development and stewardship of the collections. MIs should employ more specialists from Indigenous communities with deep understanding of customary practices and principles, encourage other staff to develop their understanding of the language and customs of the Indigenous communities that their collections are rooted in, and develop partnerships with Indigenous authorities to help guide them on issues relating to sacred knowledge and genealogical materials. The authors also recommend that MIs develop outreach programs to raise awareness of the resources and to improve digital access and competencies.

  • 19 de Setembro de 2022, 00:00

Values-Based Practice in EBLIP: A Review

Por Emilia C. Bell

Objective – This narrative literature review examines how values and a values-based practice framework are positioned as significant to evidence based practice in libraries. This includes examining the partnership between values and evidence in decision making and reflective practice. The review responds to a gap in the literature on the origins and application of values-based practice in evidence based library and information practice (EBLIP).

Methods – Searches for this narrative review were conducted in library and information science databases, discovery tools, and individual journals. Forward and backward citation searches were also undertaken. Searches aimed to encompass both the EBLIP and library assessment literature. Research and professional publications were considered for inclusion based on their engagement with values and values-based practice in EBLIP processes and decisions.

Results – The findings highlight how values reflect positionality, driving action and decision making in all stages of evidence based practice in libraries. The literature emphasizes the role of values when practitioners engage with critical reflective practice or invite user voices in evidence. An explicit values-based practice approach was evident in the library assessment literature, though not explicitly addressed in the EBLIP literature or EBLIP models. This is despite a partnership between evidence based practice and values-based practice in the health sciences literature, with literature on person-centred approaches aiming to relate evidence to individuals.

Conclusions – The EBLIP literature could further examine how values reflect positionality and drive action and decision making across all stages of evidence based practice. Values-based practice offers an opportunity to critically reflect on whose voices, perspectives, and values are reflected in and contribute to the library and information science evidence base.

  • 19 de Setembro de 2022, 00:00

What Do Reference Librarians Do Now?

Por Monty L. McAdoo

Objective - The primary purpose of this study was to better understand the nature of “reference” and reference transactions.

Methods - This study looked at four years’ of reference transaction (RT) data recorded at a small, state-owned university.

Results - The data clearly indicates that the overall number of RT continues to decline. It also reveals that, despite the use of student mentors, librarians are still involved with a majority of RT, regardless of whether or not they require the expertise of a librarian to resolve.

Conclusion - Continuing to be involved with RT which do not require the knowledge or training of a librarian (e.g., directional) can have a diminutive effect on the perceived role, work, and value of librarians. As such, it is suggested that these sorts of questions be addressed by student mentors or staff members. In turn, this will allow librarians to focus on those questions and activities which do require their unique knowledge and skills. Along similar lines, it is also suggested that librarians explore and identify new, non-traditional ways of applying their expertise to student success initiatives and the overall academic life of the institution. With the merger of three libraries, data from this study has been and continues to be used to make informed decisions about the provision of reference services in a new, integrated library environment.

  • 19 de Setembro de 2022, 00:00

The Effects of Counterproductive Workplace Behaviors on Academic LIS Professionals’ Health and Well-Being

Por Christy Fic

Objective – This study seeks to investigate the degree of counterproductive workplace behaviors (CWB) experienced by library and information science (LIS) professionals and how these behaviors contribute to physical, mental, and chronic health outcomes. While health outcomes may be present independent of CWB, this study seeks to explore the relationship between the two to provide context to the growing incidence of burnout among academic LIS professionals.

Methods – This quantitative study analyzed 327 responses to a survey about colleague behavior and health sent to LIS professionals through library community electronic mailing lists. The survey contained demographic questions, questions about CWB, questions about health experiences, and questions about the perceived relationship between work and health. Counterproductive workplace behaviors were rated on a seven-point Likert scale. A behavior score was calculated by adding the Likert values of the 12 behavior questions. This score was used when comparisons about CWB were compared by demographics and health responses. Statistical analysis of survey results was performed using RStudio.

Results – The mean total behavior score was 39. 107 respondents’ total behavior scores fell in the low range, 202 in the moderate range, and 18 in the high range. There was no significant relationship found between demographic factors and behavior score. A negative relationship was observed between duration of employment in an academic library and presence of mental health issues (F(5, 310) = 10.114, p = 5.5e-09). A similar relationship was observed between duration of employment in the respondents’ current library and presence of mental health issues (F(5, 311) = 9.748, p = 1.15e-08). Level of CWB experienced was found to have a relationship with the perceived ability to maintain good mental (F(2, 324) = 36.34, p = 5.75e-15), physical (F(2, 324) = 23.82, p = 2.24e-10), and chronic health (F(2, 323) = 13.04, p = 3.57e-06). Generally speaking, lower levels of CWB were associated with fewer challenges maintaining health.

Conclusion – Low to moderate levels of CWB are common in academic libraries. These behavior levels are associated with an increase in health challenges. LIS professionals perceive work as being a factor that contributes to having trouble maintaining good mental and physical health and toward successfully managing chronic health conditions. Further study is needed to determine the degree to which experiencing CWB in the workplace affects health. Further study is also needed to determine if certain behaviors impact health outcomes more than others.

  • 19 de Setembro de 2022, 00:00

EBLIP Seeks Writing Assistants

Por Editorial Team
  • 15 de Junho de 2022, 00:00

Academic Librarians Develop Their Teaching Identities Differently Depending on Their Years of Instructional Experience

Por Michelle DuBroy

A Review of:

Nichols Hess, A. (2020). Instructional experience and teaching identities: How academic librarians' years of experience in instruction impact their perceptions of themselves as educators. Communications in Information Literacy, 14(2), 153–180.


Objective – To examine how an academic librarian’s years of instructional experience impacts how they think of themselves as instructors.

Design – Survey questionnaire.

Setting – American academic library profession.

Subjects – 353 participants selected from 501 respondents.

Methods – A Qualtrics survey was sent via email to members of several American Library Association discussion lists. The author selected a subset of respondents for further analysis based on how they answered key questions on the survey. Selected participants were those who believed they had experienced perspective transformation around their teaching identities. The author used principal component analysis and confirmatory factor analysis to identify twelve transformative constructs across three sub-themes: relational, experiential, and professional inputs. The author then labelled each construct based on its respective component parts. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were then conducted using SPSS.

Main Results – Statistically significant differences were found between experienced and inexperienced instructional librarians. Participants with more instructional experience tend to believe their teaching identities are influenced to a greater extent by these factors:

  • Interpersonal relationships
  • Feedback from colleagues outside of librarianship
  • Self-directed learning opportunities

Participants with less instructional experience tend to believe their teaching identities are influenced to a greater extent by these factors:

  • Feedback from those within librarianship
  • Library-centric inputs such as their formal library studies

Conclusion – Different types of professional development opportunities will appeal to different librarians based on their level of instructional experience. Less experienced librarian instructors may find mentoring and informal collegial relationships within the library to be beneficial. More experienced librarian instructors may prefer to seek out relationships with colleagues outside the library to further develop their teaching identities.

  • 15 de Junho de 2022, 00:00

Charting the Future of the Ginans: Needs and Expectations of the Ismaili Youth in the Western Diaspora

Por Karim Tharani

Objective – The heritage of ginans of the Nizari Ismaili community comprises hymn-like poems in various Indic dialects that were transmitted orally. Despite originating in the Indian subcontinent, the ginans continue to be cherished by the community in the Western diaspora. As part of a study at the University of Saskatchewan, an online survey of the Ismaili community was conducted in 2020 to gather sentiments toward the ginans in the Western diaspora. This article presents the results of the survey to explore the future of the ginans from the perspective of the English-speaking Ismaili community members.

Methods – An online survey was developed to solicit the needs of the global Ismaili community using convenience sampling. The survey attracted 515 participants from over 20 countries around the world. The English-speaking members of the Ismaili community between 18 to 44 years of age living in Western countries were designated as the target group for this study. The survey responses of the target group (n = 71) were then benchmarked against all other respondents categorized as the general group (n = 444).

Results – Overall, 85% of the respondents of the survey were from the diaspora and 15% were from the countries of South Asia including India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. The survey found that 97% of the target group respondents preferred English materials for learning and understanding the ginans compared to 91% in the general group. Having access to online ginan materials was expressed as a dire need by respondents in the two groups. The survey also revealed that over 90% of the respondents preferred to access private and external ginan websites rather than the official community institutional websites. In addition, the survey validated the unified expectations of the community to see ginans become an educational and scholarly priority of its institutions.

Conclusion – Based on the survey results, it can be concluded that the respondents in the target group are educated citizens of English-speaking countries and regard the heritage of ginans to be an important part of their lives. They value the emotive and performative aspects of the tradition that help them express their devotion and solidarity to the Ismaili faith and community. They remain highly concerned about the future of the ginans and fear that the teachings of the ginans may be lost due to lack of attention and action by the community institutions. The development and dissemination of curriculum-based educational programs and resources for the ginans emerged as the most urgent and unmet expectation among the survey respondents. The article also identifies actions that the community institutions can take to ensure continued transmission and preservation of the ginans in the Western diaspora.

  • 15 de Junho de 2022, 00:00

Evidence Summary Theme: Education

Por Heather MacDonald
  • 15 de Junho de 2022, 00:00

Iranian Public Libraries Can Improve Self-Efficacy in Information Literacy, Especially When School Library Instruction Is Not Preparing Students for Lifelong Learning Readiness

Por Samantha J. Kaplan

A Review of:

Leili, S., Maryam, H., & Mohsen, A. (2020). The effect of information literacy instruction on lifelong learning readiness. IFLA Journal, 46(3), 259-270.


Objective – To examine the efficacy of information literacy skills instruction on the lifelong learning readiness skills of Iranian public library users.

Design – Pre- and post-test experiment.

Setting – Two public libraries in Iran.

Subjects – Thirty (30) high school students who were active users of two Iranian public libraries.

Methods – Thirty (30) participants were randomized into two groups, one of which received information literacy training for seven weeks, while the other group acted as a control. Participants were assessed via three instruments in information literacy and readiness for lifelong learning prior to and at the completion of the training program. The workshops included basic library skills, recognizing needed information skills, information source skills, Internet skills, Internet searching skills, resource instruction, database skills, and general searching skills. Results of pre- and post-test assessments were analyzed with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA).

Main Results – The group that received information literacy instruction showed increased readiness for self-directed learning, readiness to overcome deterrents to participation, and improved information literacy. The control group did not show an increase in readiness to respond to triggers for learning or an overall increase in lifelong learning readiness.

Conclusion – Information literacy instruction can improve elements of lifelong learning readiness in regular library users. Public libraries in Iran should begin long-term planning to implement this training.

  • 15 de Junho de 2022, 00:00

How Affective and Emotional Labor Impede or Facilitate New Teaching Practices Among Information Literacy Instruction Librarians Is Inconclusive

Por Eugenia Opuda

A Review of:

Galoozis, E. (2019). Affective aspects of instruction librarians’ decisions to adopt new teaching practices: Laying the groundwork for incremental change. College & Research Libraries, 80(7), 1036–1050.


Objective – To investigate the correlation between emotional and affective labour and instruction librarians’ willingness to adopt and implement novel teaching and educational practices.

Design – Semi-structured interview, grounded theory.

Setting – Academic libraries in the Greater Western Library Alliance consortium.

Subjects – 12 information literacy librarians from the Greater Western Library Alliance consortium of 38 research libraries from the US.

Methods – In 2016, the author shared a call for study participants in the Greater Western Library Alliance (GWLA) consortium, selected a convenience sample of 12 information literacy instruction (ILI) librarians, and conducted a structured interview over Adobe Connect, a virtual video-interviewing tool. Interview transcripts underwent initial thematic coding using a grounded theory approach. Additionally, the author used Walker and Symons’ theories of motivation to code interview responses related to emotional and affective labour.

Main Results – The author identified three thematic categories in the interview transcripts: barriers and influences for adopting new teaching practices, and practices implemented by ILI librarians. The author mapped these response themes to Walker and Symons’ (1997) conditions of human motivation: autonomy, competency, feedback, affirmation, and setting meaningful goals. Some major barriers to adopting new teaching practices are burnout and emotional exhaustion due to understaffing, time demands, the sheer quantity of instruction sessions, and the lack of post-instruction feedback to reinforce pedagogical decisions. A sense of competency, autonomy, and support when designing library instruction sessions encourages librarians to adopt new teaching practices. The author explored what practices ILI librarians applied to implement new teaching practices. Having plenty of time to prepare prior to an instruction session encourages ILI librarians to build new teaching practices into sessions. The respondents noted that building relationships with faculty, students, and library colleagues enables them to receive helpful feedback.

Conclusion – Though there is some correlation between affective and emotional labour and the motivation of ILI librarians to adopt and implement new teaching practices, the author notes that the results are not generalizable to a larger context based on the small sample size. It is clear there are many opportunities to investigate other factors that impact librarian motivation and emotional labour including the dynamics of race, gender identity, and disability, or the managerial and structural factors and workplace culture that impede or facilitate the adoption of new teaching practices.

  • 15 de Junho de 2022, 00:00

An Assessment of Information Control: Understanding Library Service Quality from Users’ Perspectives

Por Retno Sayekti

Objective – This study aims to measure library users’ perceptions of the quality of information control using LibQual, a survey instrument that measures library users’ minimum perceived and desired levels of service quality across three dimensions: Effect of Service, Library as Place, and Information Control. Numerous studies using LibQual have emphasized the service aspect, while quality of information control has received less attention. Previous studies have reported low quality of information control in academic libraries.

Methods – A descriptive survey was conducted at the library of the Universitas Islam Negeri Sumatera Utara (UINSU), Medan, Indonesia, where active members of the library total 49,892. Using proportional random sampling, 100 completed surveys were obtained from a total population of 49,892.

Results – This study shows that the quality of information control in the library of UINSU Medan does not meet minimum user expectations. Nevertheless, ease of navigation of information was perceived as acceptable. The study also reveals that the library has promoted information services through exhibition activities, user education activities, and social media.

Conclusion – The findings suggest the need for libraries to improve the quality of information services, including content of information, access protocols, search time, ease of navigation, interface, and access from outside the campus. Further, libraries need to conduct continuous service quality evaluation on a regular basis (using tools such as LibQual) to understand the needs of users in terms of information control better. The results from the present study provide strong evidence to support a recommendation that, in general, universities should provide required resources and funding for libraries to improve information services to ensure that the libraries meet quality standards.

  • 15 de Junho de 2022, 00:00

Librarian Expertise is Under-Utilized by Students and Faculty in Online Courses

Por Kimberly MacKenzie

A Review of:

Steele, J.E. (2021). The role of the academic librarian in online courses: A case study. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 47(5), 102384.


Objective – To examine the role of academic librarians in online courses in a university setting.

Design – Survey questionnaire.

Setting – A multi-campus university in the southern United States.

Subjects – Students, faculty, and librarians who had taken, taught, or assisted in fully online courses.

Methods – Email addresses for potential survey participants were provided by the university office of institutional research. The researchers tailored survey questions weto specific subject groups. The surveys took roughly 15 minutes to complete and were open for 1 week following the original email. Surveys included 12 – 16 questions, depending on the version, and included questions relating to the use of librarians in online courses, the type of assistance they provided, and how assistance was provided (e.g., in person, email, live chat). Question types included yes/no, check-all-that-apply, and open-ended-answer.

Main Results – Of the student responders, 23.24% reported asking a librarian for help with research or an assignment. This help included finding resources (34.48%), database searching (28.57%), and searching the library catalog (20.69%). Help was given over email (28.03%), live chat (31.82%), and in person (17.42%), which was reported to be most helpful by several students. Only 10.61% reported using video-conferencing software such as Zoom.

Only 5.88% of faculty reported including a librarian for synchronous instruction in online courses, while 19.12% made use of asynchronous tutorials created by a librarian. The majority of respondents (93.1%) had not worked with an embedded librarian in their courses, and many reported not knowing that it was an option. Instead, faculty perceived librarians to be an outside resource.

Both faculty members and students reported a desire for more video tutorials from librarians. Several faculty mentioned wanting a library module that could serve as an introduction to the library, library resources, and basic instruction topics such as citation styles.

Conclusion – While some students and faculty have worked with librarians in online courses and welcomed their involvement, there is room for improvement in library outreach, including how the library communicates with and supports this growing population.

  • 15 de Junho de 2022, 00:00

Syntheses Synthesized: A Look Back at Grant and Booth's Review Typology

Por Carrie Price

A Review of:

Grant, M. J., & Booth, A. (2009). A typology of reviews: An analysis of 14 review types and associated methodologies. Health Information and Libraries Journal, 26(2), 91–108.


Objective – The article, published in 2009, aims to provide a descriptive analysis of common review types to dispel confusion and misapplication of terminology.

Design – An examination of terminology and methods applied in published literature reviews.

Methods – Grant and Booth preliminarily performed a scoping search and drew on their own experiences in health and health information theory and practice. Using literature reviews from the Health Information and Libraries Journal review feature and reviews identified in a previously published evaluation of methods in systematic reviews and meta-analyses (Ankem, 2008), Grant and Booth examined characteristics of literature reviews. They subsequently identified variations in literature review methodologies and correlating vocabulary. After arriving at the conclusion that probing the review titles and descriptions—or alternatively, examining review workflow and timeframe processes—were not accurate for classifying review types, the authors chose to apply an analytical framework called Search, AppraisaL, Synthesis, and Analysis (SALSA). By examining the scope of the search, the method of appraisal, and the nature and characteristics of the synthesis and analysis, SALSA helped the authors describe and characterize the "review processes as embodied in the description of the methodology" (Grant & Booth, 2009, p. 104). By employing an objective technique to categorize literature review types, the authors generated a descriptive typology.

Main Results – The authors provided a descriptive typology for 14 different literature reviews: critical review, literature review, mapping review/systematic map, meta-analysis, mixed studies review/mixed methods review, overview review, qualitative systematic review/qualitative evidence synthesis, rapid review, scoping review, state-of-the-art review, systematic review, systematic search and review, systematized review, and umbrella review. With the application of the SALSA framework, the literature review types were defined and narratively described and summarized, along with perceived strengths, weaknesses, and a previously published example provided for comparison. Two tables supplied a quick reference for comparing literature review types and examining selected reviews. A breakdown of review types was followed by a discussion of using and developing reviews in the library and health information science domain.

Conclusion – Inconsistency in nomenclature and methods across literature reviews perpetuates significant confusion among those involved in authoring or deciphering literature reviews. Grant and Booth noted the lack of an internationally agreed-upon set of review types, the formulation of which would set a precedent for a better understanding of what is expected and required of such publications. In supplying a historical context of the literature review (detailing both its importance as a synthesis of primary research and its value to users), Grant and Booth provided a useful narrative and typology to "inform how LIS workers might approach the appraisal or development of a health information review" (p. 106).

  • 15 de Junho de 2022, 00:00

Audio Feedback Project: A Project to Increase Social Presence in a Virtual Library and Knowledge Service

Por Matt Holland

Objective – This research project sought to determine if audio feedback in literature searches can increase the social presence of the library and create a positive view of the library service. It also explored the process of recording and sending audio feedback; tested its practicality, sustainability, and accessibility; and ascertained whether audio feedback enhanced the library’s communication, thereby creating a positive attitude toward the library and its services.

Methods – The research was conducted in a small virtual library and information service. The research sample consisted of all library users and clinicians who requested a mediated literature search between July 2019 and July 2020. All participants were sent an audio commentary on their search results, recorded by the librarian, and were asked to respond to an online questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of five statements. The study participants indicated their agreement or disagreement with each statement on a five-point Likert scale.

Results – The researcher sent out 96 audio commentaries, generating 31 responses to the questionnaire. The results indicated that users felt the audio feedback improved their understanding of the results of their inquiry, made them feel more comfortable about using the library, enhanced their experience of communicating with the library and provided a better experience than just receiving an email. The responses broadly supported the contention that audio commentaries created social presence and generated a positive view of the library.

Conclusion – The researcher found that delivering audio feedback was both practical and sustainable. Some consideration was given to individual learning styles and how these made audio or text feedback more or less effective. Specifically, audio feedback enhanced communications better than an email alone.

  • 15 de Junho de 2022, 00:00