Noticias em eLiteracias

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Determinants of perceived information need for emerging ICT adoption

14 de Junho de 2019, 02:07
The Bottom Line, Volume 32, Issue 2, Page 158-183, May 2019.
Purpose Most studies in information behaviour have focussed on information behaviour aspects such as environmental uncertainty, scanning behaviour of top management executives, student and women information behaviour, information source and credibility, while little is known about the information behaviour of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) when the need for emerging information and communication technology (EICT) adoption decision-making arises. This paper, therefore, aims to explore the major determinants of perceived information need for EICT adoption by UK small service-oriented businesses. Design/methodology/approach The study adopted qualitative method to explore 13 key determinants of SME managers’ information behaviour for EICT adoption decision-making by using both unstructured and semi-structured interviews at two different stages with 20 participants drawn purposeful from Luton directories. Findings The study developed an extended technology, organisation and environment (TOE) framework by identifying and incorporating the information context which helped to unveil 13 key determinants of perceived information need and their impact on EICT adoption decision-making in SMEs. This further provided insight into understanding SMEs’ information behaviour. While the determinants associated with TOE and information contexts influence SMEs’ perceived information need for EICT adoption, the extent at which these four constructs shape SMEs’ perceived information need for EICT adoption decision-making differs. Research limitations/implications The limitation of this study emerged because of the use of qualitative methodologies in relation to the research design, rigour in the collection and management of the large volume of the raw data, the data analysis and the credibility of the findings. This may lead to unforeseen respondent – and research – bias in the data analysis, which may lead to limited understanding of alternatives and insights into the key determinants of perceived information need for EICT adoption decision. Hence, other measures and approaches such as case study and mix-method could be deployed to further validate the findings. Also, one of the limitations of qualitative study has been the issue of theoretical generalizability of the framework. The generalizability of the formwork needs to be established across a wider range of population. Future studies may apply a confirmatory statistical techniques to test and ascertain the validity and reliability of the framework across a wider population. Such studies may be used as a benchmark for the theoretical constructs and the factors that may lead to success or failure of mobile marketing technology adoption. Originality/value The study has further enriched TOE framework and provided an analytical dimension for exploring key determinants of SMEs’ perceived information need for EICT adoption decision-making. It also demonstrates the capacity to provide a reliable explanation of the determinants and serves as a tool for evaluating the benefits or challenges of SMEs’ information behaviours when the need for EICT adoption arises.
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Are CRM systems ready for AI integration?

6 de Junho de 2019, 03:30
The Bottom Line, Volume 32, Issue 2, Page 144-157, May 2019.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework to check if an organization is ready to adopt an AI-integrated CRM system. The study also analyzes different situations which can provide a comprehensive check list in the form of indicators that could provide a signal indicating whether the organization is ready to adopt an AI-integrated CRM system by capturing actionable and appropriate data. Design/methodology/approach The paper is a general review, and appropriate literature has been used to support the conceptual framework. Findings The key findings of this study are the different indicators that make up the conceptual framework. This framework can help organizations to check at a glance whether they are ready to adopt AI-integrated CRM system in their organizations. Specifically, it has been identified that different approaches are needed to tackle various types of customer data so that those may be made fit and actionable for appropriate utilization of AI algorithms to facilitate business success of an organization. Practical implications The paper has elaborately discussed the different approaches to be undertaken to calibrate and reorient the various kinds of actionable data and the contemplated challenges one would face in doing so. This would help the practitioners that how the data so captured can be made fit for action and utilization toward application of AI technologies integrated with existing CRM system in an organization. Originality/value This study is claimed to be a unique study to provide a conceptual framework which could help arranging and rearranging of captured data by an organization for making the data fit and ready for use with the help of AI technologies. This successful integration of AI with CRM system can help organizations toward taking quick and automated decision-making without much intervention of human beings.
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Impact of advent of electronic information resources on performance of library users

6 de Junho de 2019, 03:28
The Bottom Line, Volume 32, Issue 2, Page 135-143, May 2019.
Purpose The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of advent of electronic information resources on “academic and carrier related core aspects of user performance”. Design/methodology/approach Seven sampled agricultural universities across northern India were surveyed personally by the investigator for collecting data about the questions under investigation through a structured questionnaire. The response of the users for each statement under investigation was collected with simple “Yes”/“No” option. The investigator also resorted to the telephonic and e-mail communication to collect prompt response and had a personal interaction with respondents to substantiate the collected responses and remove any ambiguity thereof. Findings It is found that the majority of respondents are of the opinion that due to advent of e-resources the users’ interest in studies has enhanced (62.90 per cent) and that the e-resources have played a significant role in timely completion/submission of their study related assignments (74.30 per cent). It is also evident that a good proportion of respondents agree that the advent of e-resources has laid a positive impact on performance of users in “academic examinations” (50.80 per cent), “competitive examinations” (52.80 per cent), and the “interviews” (46.18 per cent) they face. Statistically, it is also verified that the performance of users with respect to five aspects investigated in this study is significantly associated with advent of e-resources (p < 0.01), whereas it does not show any association with one aspect i.e. “timely completion of an academic degree”. Research limitations/implications The findings are based on mere opinion of users and need to be verified by devising a well-articulated methodology for verification of the user performance related facts both in print and electronic eras, independent of the users’ opinion. Practical implications The findings of this study shall prompt the budget allocating authorities of the libraries to reformulate their fund allocation policies. Findings of this study shall act as logical basis to enhance budget for improving the volume of e-resources. These also emphasize the fact that a provision of recurring fund needs to be created for facilitating single window based anytime anywhere access to the available e-information base, which may include annual subscription charges for availing (i) proxy software services for remote access and (ii) federated search engine for single window searching. Originality/value This is first work of its nature in northern Indian agricultural libraries. The findings will be useful for the authorities to decide about the degree of importance the libraries need to endorse with the procurement of information resources in electronic form. The study will really inspire the researchers and librarians to conduct similar studies in other specific domains of knowledge and come out with significant findings and suggestions.
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Advances in intellectual capital performance measurement: a state-of-the-art review

20 de Maio de 2019, 03:23
The Bottom Line, Volume 32, Issue 2, Page 118-134, May 2019.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present a review on the latest developments, approaches and methods in intellectual capital (IC) performance measurement. Design/methodology/approach A total of 53 research papers from high-ranking journals concerning the advances in IC performance measurement were thoroughly reviewed and classified to identify the advanced approaches and methods that have been used to evaluate IC performance. Findings It is clear that the current application of advanced or intelligent methods in IC performance measurement is still at the primary stage. The reviewed approaches mainly focus on two core applications. First is to assist the data collection or data handling process and second is to enhance the result computation process to obtain a more reliable and realistic value that represents the performance of IC. Research limitations/implications This study offers a foundation and guideline for the researchers who wish to integrate advanced methods into IC performance measurement based on the reviewed advanced approaches in terms of their respective functions, strengths and limitations. It stimulates the creation of new IC performance measurement models that use advanced approaches to cope with real-life problems and dynamic conditions. Originality/value This paper contributes to the literature on IC performance measurement, in light of advances in technology. In general, five advanced approaches were identified, analyzed and discussed. Future research directions were presented to provide new insights for researchers to apply advanced methods in IC performance measurement, together with theoretical and managerial implications.
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19 de Março de 2019, 01:29
The Bottom Line, Volume 32, Issue 1, Page 98-116, March 2019.
Purpose This paper aims to review the development of thinking about the information needed by companies to create an accurate picture of how well they manage their engagement with customers, taking into account the evolution of thinking and practice in this area over the past three decades towards the idea of data-driven customer engagement. It then describes the evolution and use of an assessment and benchmarking process and tool which provide the needed information. Design/methodology/approach Literature review, conceptual analysis and explanation of the management consulting process are used. Findings Companies can get an accurate picture of how well they manage customer engagement provided that a careful assessment approach is used where assessors are properly selected and trained and that there is a strong focus on compliance with requirements rather than “box-ticking” based upon managers’ perceptions. Research limitations/implications The assessment and benchmarking process was developed mainly for use by larger companies, though the findings could be adapted for use by smaller companies. Practical implications Companies whose success depends upon customer engagement should consider using the assessment and benchmarking tool to guide their planning and implementation. They should heed the warnings about the risks of inaccurate assessments which may arise because of the incentives by which managers are managed. Social implications The assessment and benchmarking process has been used by the public sector and government, and given government’s desire to engage citizens better, they should consider adopting the ideas in this paper to reform citizen engagement. Originality/value This is the only paper which reviews the development of the assessment process for customer engagement.
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The dimensionality of corporate communication management (CCM)

12 de Março de 2019, 03:17
The Bottom Line, Volume 32, Issue 1, Page 71-97, March 2019.
Purpose This paper aims to investigate the conceptualisation of corporate communication management (CCM) and its dimensionality from the practitioners’ perspectives. It proposes to validate an operational definition and dimensions of the CCM construct, which have not been identified in the literature. Design/methodology/approach The initial concepts are based on academic literature and followed by 12 face-to-face interviews with corporate communication practitioners and consultants from Malaysia to confirm the practicality of each dimension. QSR Nvivo Version 9.0 software is used to analyse the qualitative data. Then, the data are classified through deductive content analysis based on key words or themes. Findings The diverse perspectives are shown from the practitioners and consultants on the dimensionality of CCM. Most of the interviewees suggest that CCM dimensions include corporate advertising, corporate affairs, investor relations and employee communication within the corporate communication and other departments. They also found the public relations and media relations are clearly under corporate communications manager’s supervision. This research confirms the concept of CCM and its dimensionality to operationalise the CCM construct. The CCM dimensions also offer opportunities for further research to develop the measurement scales. Originality/value This research contributes to the clarification on the subject matter by developing clear concepts of the CCM and by offering insights about the role of the CCM dimensions, which help managers to more successfully incorporate the CCM dimension into the corporate management strategy. This paper also examines the concept of CCM and confirms its dimensionality, which helps in developing the CCM measurement for further quantitative research.
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Achieving sustainable competitive advantage through green entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation

16 de Janeiro de 2019, 12:10
The Bottom Line, Volume 32, Issue 1, Page 2-15, March 2019.
Purpose This paper aims to examine the role of the inter-organizational learning contributing in transforming the green entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation to the improvement of sustainable competitive advantages. Design/methodology/approach The structural equation model was established to explain the complex relationship between green entrepreneurial orientation, market orientation and sustainable competitive advantage. To test the hypothesis, this study used partial least square with data from a survey of 280 firms. Findings There is a strong tendency that the inter-organizational learning plays a pivotal role as an intervening variable that operates by receiving the input from green entrepreneurial orientation and market orientation, which plays as the exogenous construct. Hence, the greater inter-organizational learning leads the firms to achieve the greater sustainable competitive advantage. Originality/value This study extends the discussion on how organization should contribute to the well-being of the economic, social and environmental system by investigating the role of inter-organizational learning in achieving the sustainable competitive advantage.
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From information mismanagement to misinformation – the dark side of information management

23 de Novembro de 2018, 04:12
The Bottom Line, Volume 32, Issue 1, Page 47-70, March 2019.
Purpose This paper reviews the literature on information mismanagement and constructs a typology of misinformation that can be applied to analyse project planning and strategic planning processes to reduce the chances of failure that results from information mismanagement. This paper aims to summarize the research on information mismanagement and provide guidance to managers concerning how to minimize the negative consequences of information mismanagement and to academics concerning how to research and analyse case studies that might involve information mismanagement. Design/methodology/approach Literature review accompanied by conceptual analysis. Findings Information mismanagement is widespread in organizations, so all those involved in managing and researching them need to be far more aware of the damage that can be done by it. Research limitations/implications The research is based on the Western society (Europe and North America). The same research should be carried out in other parts of the world. Also, all the case studies could usefully be investigated in more depth to apply the taxonomy. Practical implications Managers should be much more aware of their own and others’ tendencies to mismanage information to their own benefit. Social implications Stakeholders in public sector activities, including citizens, should be much more aware of the tendency of the government and the public sector to mismanage information to justify particular policy approaches and to disguise failure. Originality/value The taxonomy on information mismanagement is original, as is its application to project planning and strategic decision-making.
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Digitally facilitated newspaper consumption and value co-creation

31 de Outubro de 2018, 02:41
The Bottom Line, Volume 32, Issue 1, Page 16-46, March 2019.
Purpose The purpose of this study is to provide insights into value creation within a newspaper consumption community, adding to current information research by demonstrating how an atypical consumption community can co-create value in ways different from those identified in extant research. The upheaval of the newspaper industry’s business model and value chain in the face of digitalisation has led to significant decreases in newspaper revenue. To stay successful in the modern digital climate, it is essential for newspapers to utilise the interactive features of Web 2.0 to find new value sources. To do so, it is necessary to focus not just on tangible financial value but also symbolic value. The study supports the notion that consumers collectively co-create value through consumption community practices. Design/methodology/approach Through the conduction of a netnographic exploration of active consumers on the Guardian website and interviews with passive consumers, the study’s aims of understanding co-creation in digitally facilitated newspaper consumption environment were achieved. Findings The findings have opened up new ways in which newspapers can harness value through consumption communities as well as suggesting the future scope of research. This study indicates that newspapers foster an atypical environment for the creation of a cohesive consumption community – something that has failed to be appreciated in extant information research – because their diverse content influences the formation of multiple community pools with members who do not always share the same beliefs. In addition, the study reveals that the Guardian’s online consumption community co-creates value without strict adherence to the prescribed contingencies set out in current literature. The findings uncover new patterns in community behaviour proving value to be created not just through their co-consumption but also through individual consumption. Originality/value This study contributes to discussions on how communities co-create value and how this differs with different article subjects (lifestyle and political and types of participants, both active and passive).
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Information management – a skills gap?

25 de Outubro de 2018, 08:54
The Bottom Line, Volume 31, Issue 3/4, Page 170-190, September 2018.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore very recent data about how large organizations are dealing with a shortage of information and communications technology (ICT) specialists, in terms of its implications for information management. Design/methodology/approach This paper is based on qualitative interview-based research with 11 large European companies, with an estimated ICT workforce of around 400,000 (about 14 per cent of ICT professionals in Europe), covering hiring, retention and upskilling of ICT staff, and expectations concerning graduates from European universities. These data are combined with International Data Corporation (IDC) analyst reports on the demand for different categories of ICT products and services, and data from the authors’ consulting work. Findings Larger organizations expect hiring to be a challenge, with strong competition for talent, whether from existing users or from the many rapidly digitalizing companies – digitalizing their organizations; their products and services; and their relationships with customer, suppliers and business partners. Upskilling and retraining workforces is seen by large organizations as a better approach than hiring, allowing them to create the right skills balance and retain their workers better. However, softer skills, such as communication and problem solving, are seen as just as important. ICT workers will benefit from a lifelong approach to learning, acquiring new skills and adapting existing skills. Many ICT companies have created academies for developing employee skills and certifications related to their own technologies, while the education sector has been working on creating curricula (alone or sometimes in partnerships with vendors) to improve graduate employability. Research limitations/implications The research is based on a small sample of large companies. The situation may be different in other companies and smaller organizations. Practical implications Organizations can cope with the skills shortage by anticipating and working with the market forces rather than trying to oppose them. Social implications ICT employees will show the way for employees in other sectors where skills are scarce, by demonstrating how to reinvent themselves as the skills needed change. Originality/value This paper demonstrates that employers have changed their expectations of universities. They expect less that graduates will be ICT-employment ready, and more that they will have the skills to make and keep themselves employment ready. This has significant implications for university course design.
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Key success factors influencing SME managers’ information behaviour on emerging ICT (EICT) adoption decision-making in UK SMEs

17 de Outubro de 2018, 10:31
The Bottom Line, Volume 31, Issue 3/4, Page 250-275, September 2018.
Purpose While a substantial number of studies have examined information behaviour, most centred on choice of information source, student information behaviour, information behaviour of women, environmental uncertainty and scanning behaviour of top-level hotel executives. However, little is known about how the small and medium enterprise (SME) managers scan, seek, gather, document and use information relevant for emerging information and communication technology (EICT) adoption decision-making. This paper aims to examine the key success factors influencing SME manager’s information behaviour on EICT adoption decision-making. Design/methodology/approach This study deploys a qualitative approach to exploring 16 key success factors shaping SME managers’ information behaviour on EICT adoption decision-making. More specifically, the study adopted both unstructured and semi-structured interviews with 20 small business managers drawn purposeful from Crunch Database. Findings This study develops an extended technology, organisation and environment framework by incorporating the information context which helped to unravel 16 key success factors influencing small business managers’ information behaviour on EICT. From the technology context, uncertainty driven, compatibility, replacement of legacy technology, relative advantages, lack of technical know-how and perceived affordability fit for purpose influence SME managers’ information behaviour. Users’ acceptance information, efficiency driven, owner’s support shape the organisation context of perceived information need; competitor’s intelligence gathering, customer’s information gathering provider credibility and government policy influence the environmental context of perceived information need; and finally, perceived information sources credibility, herding event, testimonial and openness to other people’s ideas and experiences are shaped by the information context. Research limitations/implications Qualitative research is normally subjective, interpretive and limited on the sample used. Because of the limited number of interviews, the generalisation of the framework and the finding is difficult. Therefore, the finding and the framework need to be established across broader population. The findings are vital considering the fact that small business managers are limited in knowledge and the study may improve the way and manner they go about seeking and gathering information relevant in adopting new ICT. Originality/value This research provides further insight into SME managers’ information behaviour by developing a framework and identifying main factors influencing SMEs information behaviours on EICT. Therefore, understanding such factors will enrich their knowledge on some of the factors that may shape their decisions during EICT adoption decision to make effective decision.
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m-commerce technology adoption

1 de Outubro de 2018, 12:20
The Bottom Line, Volume 31, Issue 3/4, Page 208-233, September 2018.
Purpose The purpose of this study is to consolidate the state of research in mobile commerce (m-commerce) technology adoption from 2008 to 2017. This study not only reviews the evolution of m-commerce literature but also highlights the significant contribution of authors and their productive collaborations in the development of this area. Design/methodology/approach A total of 184 peer-reviewed articles focusing on m-commerce adoption were obtained after applying search criteria on Scopus database. After using inclusion and exclusion criteria to achieve the objective of this study, 86 journals were shortlisted. The study further discusses the dispersion of various m-commerce applications being explored in m-commerce literature. In addition, dominating technology adoption theories and the most used keywords have also been identified and discussed in this study. Findings This study indicates that technology acceptance model and unified theory of acceptance and use of technology are the most exploited technology adoption theories. Moreover, the dominating constructs in literature are perceived usefulness, ease of use social influence/social norm on behavior intention, attitude intention followed by performance expectancy, facilitating condition and effort expectancy influence on intention. Originality/value This study presents a detailed association rule mining and community analysis to show the association among constructs such as usefulness, ease of ease, social influence and intention as dominant group in this area. The study also identifies lesser explored constructs and indicates possible future research to validate and strengthen their understanding further.
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Information management in the smart city

1 de Outubro de 2018, 02:45
The Bottom Line, Volume 31, Issue 3/4, Page 234-249, September 2018.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate information management in a smart city. It identifies the main trends in progress and how innovation in information technology is helping all those in the smart city ecosystem in terms of generating new sources of data and connecting them. It investigates how information management in the smart city may go through several phases, but contests the notion that the co-ordinated information management that is the dream of many city managers is an appropriate vision, given the tendency in the private sector for competing information platforms to develop, giving value in different ways. Design/methodology/approach This paper has been written by using a combination of academic insight and literature, extensive research of relevant grey literature (e.g. blogs and industry press) and interviews and interaction with some of the organisations involved in developing and implementing the smart city concept, including public transport organisations, other data providers, analysts and systems and sensor suppliers. Findings Smart city concepts are evolving in different ways, with divergence of views which involves centralisation and control of information by city authorities and a more democratic view in which the information is managed on different platforms between which smart city stakeholders can choose. Research limitations/implications The research method is exploratory. Validating the findings would require a more structured approach in which stakeholders of all kinds are consulted. Practical implications All organisational stakeholders in the idea and delivery of smart cities need to consider how their interests in smart city information and those of other stakeholders are evolving and to what extent they should be in partnership with other members of the ecosystem in generating and using the information. Social implications Individuals, whether workers, commuters, shoppers, tourists or others, will be greatly affected by the evolution of smart city information, and their choices about whether to be smart themselves will have an important effect on the benefits they receive from city smartening and on the viability of the smart cities. Originality/value Little research has been carried out into the different choices organisations and individuals have in terms of how they will relate to smart city information and how they can manage it. This research makes a start on this task.
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Understanding the trends of marketing research and its future directions: a citation analysis

28 de Junho de 2018, 01:42
The Bottom Line, Volume 31, Issue 3/4, Page 191-207, September 2018.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to understand the scholarly contributions to the field of marketing by analyzing top ten journals of marketing. Design/methodology/approach The marketing journals were selected using SciMago marketing journal list, and SCOPUS database was used to identify the publications of the journals. A total of 9,190 articles were analyzed having 562,322 citation references. Methodologies like Wordle and Gephi were used to understand the most researched keywords and co-citation analysis among top five researchers. This paper also captured the information on most cited article along with author, most published author, most publishing country, most publishing university, the year with maximum publications and most used keywords. Findings The analysis indicates that “Kumar, V.” is most published author, that is, 68 publications, the most cited article is “On the evaluation of structural equation models” by Bagozzi and Yi (1988) with 6989 citations. The USA contributed the highest 6,720 publications, while University of Pennsylvania, Wharton School topped the list with 235 articles. In 2009, highest publication work was done by publishing 382 articles. “Game theory”, “Pricing” and “Advertising” are most used keywords which have been discussed in the literature. Research limitations/implications This analysis will help researchers in understanding the growth in the field of the marketing in recent years and possible direction it could take in future. However, this paper considered only top ten marketing journals as listed in SciMago marketing journal list; therefore, future researchers may incorporate more research journals to get a clearer picture of the field of marketing. Originality/value This paper is one of the first attempts in recent time to understand the research work in the field of marketing considering top ten journals.
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How leaders manage their business models using information

8 de Junho de 2018, 02:30
The Bottom Line, Volume 31, Issue 2, Page 150-167, June 2018.
Purpose The purpose of this study is to explore the information leaders keep their organisations competitive by determining if their business model is under threat and/or needs changing and whether business model innovation is needed. Design/methodology/approach This study uses a grounded theory approach to probe an area which has been so far researched very little. Findings The paper identifies that while quality of management information affects leaders’ decisions about whether their business model is under threat or needs changing, leaders may or may not choose to use it. Research limitations/implications The research was carried out with large firms in six sectors in the UK. Research in other sectors, in smaller firms and in other countries, should be carried out to test generalisability. Practical implications Although many large firms have made very large investments into areas such as customer insight in the past few years, there may be resistance to using this information even if it indicates that a firm’s current business model is under threat, because of straightforward denial or because of the inertia associated with factors such as difficulties in changing business models or the extent to which the firm’s financial situation is based upon exploiting its current business model, no matter how much that model is under threat from firms with other business models. Therefore, in strategic reviews, firms should factor in these risks and seek to mitigate them. Social implications In public sector organisations, these risks of denial or inertia may be stronger because of conservatism and lack of willingness to take the risks of change, so public sector decision makers need to be particularly aware of these risks and seek to mitigate them. Originality/value The theoretical contribution of this research is to add to business model and strategic management literature by explaining the role that information plays in business model choice and how its role depends on whether and how the information is used by senior management.
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Strategic roles of actors in emerging information communication technology (EICT) adoption in SMEs

8 de Junho de 2018, 02:28
The Bottom Line, Volume 31, Issue 2, Page 114-136, June 2018.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are involved in emerging information and communication technology (EICT) adoption by concentrating on the adoption process and the role played by various actors in the process. Information and communication technology (ICT) adoption research, especially in SMEs, has moved from a simple adopters’ participation process to involving diverse actors that continually interact and influence the process. SMEs need to constantly interact with various human and non-human actors to keep up with the EICT adoption. However, this has proved difficult. Design/methodology/approach This study adopted a qualitative method to examine the dynamic process of EICT adoption in service SMEs in the UK, and deployed both unstructured and semi-structured interviews in two separate rounds with 26 participants drawn from Crunch Online Database and Luton Business Directory. The participants include managers, customers, government agencies, SMEs consultants and information technology (IT) vendors, with the help of purposeful random sampling. Findings The study develops a framework informed by actor network theory (ANT) concepts and found that using ANT to examine the process of adoption helps to unveil the recursive nature of the process and the roles of actors which vary from one stage to another. The finding reveals that adoption of EICT is not straightforward; rather, it is evolutionary and dynamic, and small business managers’ play an important role in the process amidst other actors influence. The framework supports businesses of all types. Although ICT applications are influenced by diverse actors including IT experts, customers and vendors, the decision of SME managers regularly shape the values and beliefs of other actors if adequate information are conveyed by the numerous actors. Therefore, adoption of EICT is embraced faster by organizations, especially small businesses, if diverse actors are committed in conveying the right information to the key actors, thereby helping them to make adequate decision, and streamline their business processes. Research limitations/implications This study is limited by its focus and other factors. Studying the opinions of small service UK SMEs limits the power of generalizing the identified causal relationships; therefore, extended measures are required on accounts of environmental, cultural, geographical and sectorial differences. While some errors seemed unavoidable when measures appear subjective and prone to common error biases, the study advised on recognizing the overriding influence of the roles at each stage of the adoption process to be proactive in committing resources. Originality/value This work is of value to practitioners and academics, as it provides further insight into ICT adoption framework by showing how the diverse actors guarantee EICT adoption in small service(s) businesses. This is relevant given that SMEs have limited knowledge of new ICT and understanding diverse actors and their roles in the adoption process would enhance their knowledge of the analysts in the context of new technology adoption and to cope with EICT continually amidst of the roles of actors in the adoption process. The framework serves as an analytical instrument in explaining ICT adoption process and its outcomes characterized by conflicting views.
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Internet-based digitalmarketing strategies fordata-rich environments

7 de Junho de 2018, 10:18
The Bottom Line, Volume 31, Issue 2, Page 98-113, June 2018.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to first bring to light the essential digital strategies to study organizations. Second, how businesses can improve their strategic capabilities by using the information gathered from internet sources or networks. Third, this study investigates how employees in an organization tend to engage in positive and/or negative gossip and how gossips affect coworker-rated informal influence in organization and supervisor-rated performance. Social network analysis is used to find the underlying relationships between gossips, coworker-rated influence and supervisor-rated performance. Design/methodology/approach This research paper is divided into two parts. The first study based on profound synthesis of literature. Major digital sources to study organizations are identified. The strategies requirement for each channel is identified. Suggestions are given to managers to improve strategic decision-making based on big data. The second study is a cross-sectional study where questionnaires (survey) are used to elicit data. Social network analysis is used to analyze the data using ucinet 6 software. Findings The findings of the study pinpoint the skills required to analyze large data, available in organizations. The second study finds out that close friends are more engaged in gossips than coworkers who have only working relationships. The friends having high structural embeddedness are more likely to be involved in negative gossips. Coworker perceives those employees who are engaged in negative gossips as having high informal influence. However, there is negative relationship between negative gossips and supervisor-rated influence. Research limitations/implications The research study is cross-sectional in design; however, longitudinal design can be used to gain more insights about negative gossips and their effects. Second, a very small sample is used in this study. Practical implications This study can be used to understand informal communication network in the organization. Managers can use this channel to pass information quickly, as informal channels are faster than formal communication channels. This research can be used to understand the underling relationships between the coworkers in organizations Originality/value This paper provides guidelines to organizational life and information on how the informal networks within organization can be studied.
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Information creates relative bargaining power in vendor negotiations

14 de Maio de 2018, 01:37
The Bottom Line, Volume 31, Issue 2, Page 137-149, June 2018.
Purpose This paper aims to examine how libraries can create relative bargaining power and presents a methodology for analyzing collections and preparing for negotiations. Design/methodology/approach A brief literature review of the current state of collection budgets and electronic resource prices is presented prior to proposing a methodology based on business analysis frameworks and techniques. Findings Electronic resource subscription prices are increasing at a rate significantly higher than inflation, while collection budgets grow slowly, remain stagnant or decrease. Academic libraries have the ability to counteract this trend by creating relative bargaining power through organizational efforts that take advantage of size and concentration (e.g. consortia), vertical integration through practices such as library publishing and open access and through individual efforts using information. This paper proposes metrics and methodologies that librarians can use to analyze their collections, set negotiation priorities and prepare for individual resource negotiations to create relative bargaining power. Practical implications The proposed methodology enables librarians and buyers of information resources to harness the information available about their electronic resource collections to better position themselves when entering negotiations with vendors. Originality/value This paper presents metrics, some not commonly used (i.e. average annual price increase/decrease), that aid in understanding price sensitivity. Pareto analysis has been traditionally used to analyze usage, but this paper suggests using it in relation to costs and budgets for setting negotiation priorities.
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Avoidance of sponsored posts on consumer-generated content: a study of personal blogs

6 de Março de 2018, 09:25
The Bottom Line, Volume 31, Issue 1, Page 76-94, March 2018.
Purpose This study aims to conceptualise and empirically examine how blog users engage with the sponsored posts on consumer-generated content, specifically blogs. Design/methodology/approach This paper empirically tested the proposed hypotheses using the structural equation modelling using a sample of 399 blog users. Findings The need for cognition, perceived interactivity and perceived credibility of blogs has been found to directly influence consumers’ attitude towards blogs. Innovativeness has been found to have a weak negative link with the attitude towards blogs. Blog users were more favourable towards the sponsored posts if the blogs were more interactive. Attitude towards blogs has been found to mediate the relationship between users’ perceived interactivity and their avoidance of the sponsored posts and also between perceived credibility and avoidance of the sponsored posts on blogs. The most significant finding of this study is that the positive attitude towards a blog results in a higher avoidance of the sponsored posts. Research limitations/implications This study focuses on the sponsored posts on blogs. It does not look at other forms of advertising on blogs such as banner ads, or other forms of consumer-generated content. Practical implications Marketers and bloggers should carefully consider the suitability of the sponsored posts on blogs as they risk alienating the regular users of the blogs. Sponsored posts which are perceived as honest reviews (as opposed to paid advertorials) might be more acceptable to blog users. Social implications This study highlights the importance of credibility of bloggers to blog users. There are some serious ethical issues related to the sponsored posts which have not been discussed here but need to be examined further. Originality/value This study represents one of the first attempts to conceptualise and empirically examine how blog users engage with customer-generated advertising – sponsored posts. It contributes to marketing literature by enhancing the understanding of how consumers perceive consumer-generated content and more specifically, with regard to consumer attitudes towards online consumer-generated advertising. This study enhances the theoretical and empirical knowledge on how consumers react to advertisements on social media, with important suggestions for future research and implications for practitioners.
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A framework for business model with strategic innovation in ICT firms

6 de Março de 2018, 09:25
The Bottom Line, Volume 31, Issue 1, Page 16-41, March 2018.
Purpose The purpose of this study is to help gain an accurate and distinct understanding of information-based business concepts and critical steps in designing an appropriate business model, by providing a framework for designing an innovative information-based business to help fledgling businesses development in the information and communication technology (ICT) industry of Iran. What is a business model framework with the strategic innovation approach in the small and medium enterprises (SMEs) of ICT industry? What are the components of this model and the relations between them? Business model is a logical response to how a business can create value. Changing business environment means that business models are rapidly growing; accordingly, innovation is no longer optional. However, innovation is important in general, but the kind of innovation that is widely and directly dependent on business model will be quite critical for all parts of the organization. In fact, business model innovation is an exquisite technic to create, deliver and earn value by changing one or more components of a typical business model. Business model innovation needs information and form business environment based on dynamic information system. Design/methodology/approach The present paper focuses upon SMEs in ICT. Grounded theory has been used for this purpose, with 15 interviews conducted. Findings An emerging market is one in which commercial exchanges of a particular industry between the countries are relatively new but possess great investment attractiveness and a high potential to grow (such as Iran).As the ICT industry of Iran is a leading industry, and the country itself is an emerging market, the main purpose of this study is to provide a framework for designing an innovative information-based business to help fledgling businesses development in the ICT industry of Iran. Originality/value The purpose of this paper is to help accurate and distinct understanding of the business model concept and critical steps in designing an appropriate business model. Studies conducted to simultaneously deal with the business model and strategic innovations are few, and by the time the proposal was written, there was no research observed from Persian sources.
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Improving journeys by opening data: the case of Transport for London (TfL)

6 de Março de 2018, 09:25
The Bottom Line, Volume 31, Issue 1, Page 2-15, March 2018.
Purpose This case study describes how one of the world’s largest public transport operations, Transport for London (TfL), transformed the real-time availability of information for its customers and staff through the open data approach, and what the results of this transformation were. The purpose of this paper is therefore to show what is required for an open data approach to work. Design/methodology/approach This case study is based mainly on interviews at TfL and data supplied by TfL directly to the researchers. It analyses as far as possible the reported facts of the case to identify the processes required for open data and the benefits thereof. Findings The main finding is that achieving an open data approach in public transport is helped by having a clear commitment to the idea that the data belong to the public and that third parties should be allowed to use and repurpose the information, by having a strong digital strategy, and by creating strong partnerships with data management organisations that can support the delivery of high volumes of information. Research limitations/implications This research is based upon a single case study, albeit over an extensive period, so the findings cannot be applied simply to other situations, other than as evidence of what is possible. However, similar processes could be applied in other situations as a heuristic approach to open data strategy implementation. Practical implications The case study shows how open data can be used to create commercial and non-commercial customer-facing products and services, which passengers and other road users use to gain a better travel experience, and that this approach can be valued in terms of financial/economic contribution to customers and organisations. Social implications This case study shows the value that society can obtain from the opening of data in public transport, and the importance of public service innovation in delivering benefits to citizens. Originality/value This is the first case study to show in some detail some of the processes and activities required to open data to public service customers and others.
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The role of physical metaphors for decision-making in integrated corporate communication

6 de Março de 2018, 09:24
The Bottom Line, Volume 31, Issue 1, Page 42-55, March 2018.
Purpose The role of metaphors in information management has generally been acknowledged owing to their ability to convey immediately huge amounts of information and richness. Their role is more and more important in the current digital context of communication and marketing activities, as the decision speed and accuracy are crucial. The purpose of this study is, thus, to analyze physical metaphors as tools for making sequential decisions to achieve effective integrated corporate communication (ICC). Design/methodology/approach The paper draws on the critical analysis of literature on corporate communication and stakeholder management as building blocks for implementing an integrated approach to corporate communications. Findings A revision of two well-known physical metaphors in the communication literature (the “wheel” and “umbrella”) has been proposed. It is argued that integrated communication within corporate communications is more complex than in marketing communications, as it involves a greater variety of elements to coordinate and harmonize. The proposed physical metaphors suggest an effective sequential decision-making as they allow a clear distinction between different decision levels. Research limitations/implications The paper adds to the debate on the link between theory and practice of ICC. From a practical standpoint, the proposed metaphors as simple and concrete tools for handling complex information and ICC problems could aid novice practitioners and students of corporate communications courses. Originality/value The paper shows that while scholars have concurred that ICC is crucial for different type of organizations, the use of physical metaphors can be beneficial for the reality-based challenge of ICC.
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Antecedents and consequences of corporate communication management (CCM)

6 de Março de 2018, 09:24
The Bottom Line, Volume 31, Issue 1, Page 56-75, March 2018.
Purpose This paper aims to provide a degree of clarity on the corporate communication management (CCM) concept, by building a conceptual framework that uncovers its underlying antecedents and consequences. Although it is consolidated that corporate communication and information together play an important role in strategic management planning because of the high relevance of managing positive relationships with multiple stakeholder that have a strong impact on corporate survival, extant literature suggests that there have been few empirical studies so far assessing the contribution of CCM to organisational performance. Design/methodology/approach The paper is conceptual, and a model is developed as a result of an extensive critical multidisciplinary literature review. Findings Findings of this study identify three antecedents of CCM, namely, culture, information and communication technology innovation diffusion and corporate leadership. In addition, the study highlights a potential positive relationship between CCM, financial performance and corporate mission achievement. An integrative conceptual framework and a detailed summary table are presented in the paper. Originality/value This study provides a comprehensive critical insight into a growing body of corporate communication and information business literature that offers the basis for a thorough assessment of CCM contribution to organisational performance. By doing so, it advances the body of applicable knowledge of corporate communication meant as a strategic management lever. Moreover, the managerial and policy implications provided in this paper may help corporate communication and information practitioners to identify the key guidelines for the design and implementation of an appropriate CCM programme.
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The value and significance of corporate community relations: an Italian SME perspective

13 de Novembro de 2017, 11:24
The Bottom Line, Volume 30, Issue 4, Page 330-344, November 2017.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the link between community of place and small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Lombard industrial districts in Italy. Design/methodology/approach A brief literature review of international authors from the stakeholder approach and Corporate Community Relations (CCRs) field is presented. This paper refers to a survey of Lombard industrial districts conducted by ALTIS. The data were collected via a telephone survey from 834 firms. Findings The main finding is that managing CCRs is of major importance for company success. The results of the survey show that there are some tools and actions that Italian industrial district SMEs use to interact with their particular communities of place to develop effective and coherent relationships with their stakeholder groups. Moreover, although the survey shows that though SMEs do implement different CCR activities, they are not able to communicate these effectively through systematic communication strategies. However, the narrow sample includes only a sample of some Lombard districts. Nonetheless, the findings indicate that effective CCR seems to confer competitive advantage based on stakeholder responses and rewards sought. Research limitations/implications The framework could assist in supporting CCR developments between industrial districts as various players would know how to improve CCR activities. One further suggestion is that University and Research Centers could have a role to play in creating and communicating codified knowledge concerning community relations in industrial districts, while other public players still have to develop specific tasks in improving infrastructures. Originality/value This study is in line with the main focus of CCR, which is in striving to meet stakeholder and societal needs. However, industrial district SMEs have to learn how to communicate their CCR activities from the examples set by large Italian companies. The paper links the notion of CCR with tools and actions to develop meaningful relationships with both community of place and interest. Moreover, considering the survey results, a new framework for local player roles is proposed.
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Enhancing ICT infrastructure in public services

13 de Novembro de 2017, 11:24
The Bottom Line, Volume 30, Issue 4, Page 279-296, November 2017.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors which influence mobile government (m-government) services adoption in India. Design/methodology/approach Adoption behavior of m-government services by 311 respondents is probed by using a multiple set of constructs drawn from technology acceptance model (TAM), unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT), theory of planned behavior (TPB) and hierarchical regression analysis. Specifically, eight hypotheses were tested around constructs like Perceived Usefulness (PU), Perceived Ease of Use (EOU), Compatibility (COM), Trust (T), Influence (I), Self-Efficacy (SE), Facilitating Conditions (FC), Attitude (ATT) and Behavioral Intention to Adopt m-government services (BI). Findings Results show that PU, EOU, T and ATT were found to have significant influence on the adoption of m-government services. Furthermore, demographic variables (age, marital status, occupation, educational qualification and frequency of using m-government services) were not found to be significant predictors for the adoption of m-government services in India. Originality/value While most of the technology adoption studies are focused on commercial activities, studies on internet interfaces vis-à-vis the public services are limited to investigation of e-government services. Besides, there are more studies contextualized in the developed countries as compared to developing countries. Academic research on m-government adoption is scant and the present paper is a significant contribution in the Indian context.