A Review of:
Lundstrom, K., Fagerheim, B. & Van Geem, S. (2021). Library teaching anxiety: Understanding and supporting a persistent issue in librarianship. College & Research Libraries, 82(3), 389-409. https://doi.org/10.5860/crl.82.3.389
Objective – To determine academic librarians’ attitudes towards their teaching, how teaching anxiety manifests itself, and how teaching anxiety affects these attitudes.
Design – Online Survey.
Setting – The survey was distributed through various library science listservs.
Subjects – Any library staff with a teaching component in their role were invited to respond. There was a total of 1,035 initial responses.
Methods – The survey questions were based on a previously published survey about teaching anxiety by Davis (2007). However, the survey for this study added questions about formal and self-diagnosis of other types of anxieties, physical and psychological anxiety symptoms, and how teaching anxiety impacts other areas of the respondents’ lives. There were also questions on potential supports to reduce teaching anxiety, as well as potential barriers to these supports.
Main Results – It was found that approximately 65% of respondents experience teaching anxiety. Approximately 40% of those respondents were formally diagnosed with anxiety, and approximately 42% were self-diagnosed. There was a significant association between a formal diagnosis of anxiety, and teaching anxiety. There were also significant associations between past training, preparation, and teaching anxiety, with anxiety occurring less with increased training and preparation.
Conclusion – Teaching anxiety is a significant issue among library staff. Supports in the form of workshops on teaching as well as coping with anxiety can possibly help to reduce this phenomenon.
Background – Compared to native English speakers, English Learners (ELs) often face additional barriers to academic success. Though typically competent in social English, Generation 1.5 ELs struggle with academic English at the postsecondary level and are still considered to be in the process of learning English. As colleges become increasingly linguistically diverse, academic librarians must adapt to support the growing numbers of ELs in the campus community.
Objective – This paper aims to provide academic librarians with information on the scope of English Learners in K-12 through postsecondary education, academic challenges of Generation 1.5 students at the postsecondary level, and strategies that librarians can employ to support English learners in the contexts of reference and instruction.
Methods – The author searched journals in the disciplines of academic libraries, higher education, Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL), and linguistics. Additional resources searched include education data and statistics, research institute publications, and English as a New Language (ENL) teaching resources. These sources were explored in regard to the topics of EL educational statistics, K-12 ENL programs, ENL pedagogy, ELs in postsecondary education, Generation 1.5 students, ELs’ academic challenges and educational needs, and academic libraries and ELs.
Results – A review of the literature on ELs in academic libraries, particularly Generation 1.5 students, reveals that Generation 1.5 is a population that is in need of support at the postsecondary level. Because Generation 1.5 students often hold strong social English skills, they may enter college without an EL designation or specialized academic support. However, research shows that Generation 1.5 students struggle with college-level academic English, specifically in grammar and vocabulary. These challenges impact students’ communicative success both in college classroom and library environments.
Conclusion – Academic librarians may adopt pedagogical strategies commonly employed in ENL classrooms to use in reference and instruction environments. Techniques include themes such as awareness of language use and reinforcement of content, and require low-stakes implementation into library practice. Though librarians may be unaware of the language learning needs of their students, such strategies have shown to be useful for all students. Because techniques that are helpful to ELs also typically benefit all students, these strategies are also applicable to native English speakers.
Objective – Library science literature lacks studies on the effect of external events on the physical use of libraries, leaving a gap in understanding of would-be library patrons’ time use choices when faced with the option of using the library or attending time-bound, external events. Within academic libraries in about 900 colleges and universities in the US, weekend time use may be affected by football games. This study sought to elucidate the effect of external events on physical use of libraries by examining the effect of Saturday home football games on the physical use of the libraries in a large, academic institution.
Methods – This study used a retrospective, observational study design. Gate count data for all Saturdays during the fall semesters of 2013-2018 were collected for the two primary libraries at East Carolina University (main campus’ Academic Library Services [ALS] and Laupus, a health sciences campus library), along with data on the occurrence of home football games. The relationship between gate counts and the occurrence of home football games was assessed using an independent samples t-test.
Results – Saturday home football games decreased the gate count at both ALS and Laupus. For ALS, the mean physical use of the library decreased by one third (34.4%) on Saturdays with a home game. For Laupus, physical use of the library decreased by almost a quarter (22%) on Saturdays with a home game.
Conclusion – Saturday home football games alter the physical use of academic libraries, decreasing the number of patrons entering the doors. Libraries may be able to adjust staffing based on reduced use of library facilities during these events.
Objective – This study is designed to discover what kinds of sources are cited by composition students in the text of their papers and to determine what types of sources are used most frequently. It also examines the relationship of bibliographies to in-text citations to determine whether students “pad” their bibliographies with traditional academic sources not used in the text of their papers.
Methods – The study employs a novel method grounded in multidisciplinary research, which the authors used to tally 1,652 in-text citations from a sample of 71 student papers gathered from English Composition II courses at three universities in the United States. These data were then compared against the papers’ bibliographic references, which had previously been categorized using the WHY Method.
Results – The results indicate that students rely primarily on traditional academic and journalistic sources in their writing, but also incorporate a significant and diverse array of other kinds of source material. The findings identify a strong institutional effect on student source use, as well as the average number and type of in-text citations, which demographic characteristics do not explain. Additionally, the study demonstrates that student bibliographies are highly predictive of in-text source selection, and that students do not exhibit a pattern of “padding” bibliographies with academic sources.
Conclusion – The data warrant the conclusions that an understanding of one’s own institution is vitally important for effective work with students regarding their source selection, and that close analysis of student bibliographies gives an unexpectedly reliable picture of the types and proportions of sources cited in student writing.
A Review of:
Lo, L.S. & Anderson, A.M. (2020). Personal goal setting behavior and professional outlooks of academic library employees. Journal of New Librarianship, 5, 204-236. https://doi.org/10.33011/newlibs/9/21
Objective – To identify a correlation between academic library employees who set New Year’s resolutions and goal-setting behavior in professional contexts, and to explore practices, personal attitudes, and outlooks that influence goal-setting and goal-achievement
Design – Non-experimental multiple choice questionnaire
Setting – Online
Subjects – 308 adult participants (over 21 years old) who work in academic library settings including staff, librarians, and administration
Methods – The authors designed an online, non-experimental multiple choice questionnaire through Qualtrics. The authors distributed study invitations to multiple professional library listservs, though it is unclear which listservs were included and what geographic location was covered. The survey was available for roughly a month from February 1-26, 2016. The survey screened participant demographics to omit those under 21 years of age and all identifying information was removed in order to protect participant privacy. All participation was voluntary and participants who were interested in contributing to a follow-up research study were asked to share their contact emails.
Main Results – Most participants (n=182, 59%) set no New Year's resolutions in 2015 and half (n=155, 50%) set no resolutions in 2016. When asked to explain, 23% noted that they hadn't considered setting resolutions in 2016, 9% did not prioritize setting goals, and 5% felt that they could not achieve their goals. Additionally, over 50% articulated other reasons including not prioritizing goal-setting for New Year’s, noting that setting goals around the academic year was timelier, and that some participants already had enough goals to achieve. In 2016, half of participants (n=153, 50%) set New Year’s resolutions. By far the most common resolution was physical fitness and healthy eating (n=64, 42%). About 19% set occupational goals including skill building, and 15% set emotional goals including cultivating optimism and mindfulness. When asked about goal-setting practices, 36% of the 2016 resolution setters described writing or typing out their goals, 59% shared their goals with others, and nearly 90% enacted changes in their daily routines in order to achieve their goals. 26 participants used all of the goal setting practices above. This group prioritized their top goals and felt confident about reaching those goals. Four participants did not practice goal-setting techniques, and also felt less confident about achieving their goals. 49% of 2016 resolution setters had somewhat optimistic outlooks, and 24% had very optimistic life outlooks. Of those with pessimistic life outlooks, nearly all believed it would be difficult to accomplish goals. Respondents who claimed to be very ambitious were likely to set occupational goals as their top goal. 81% of those in dean and director positions reported being very ambitious and 85% also reported being optimistic. All deans and directors felt confident about accomplishing their goals. For middle managers, 75% felt ambitious and 72% felt optimistic. Professional librarians were 66% ambitious and 72% optimistic.
Conclusions – This study's findings align closely with United States national averages about the percentage of Americans who set New Year’s resolutions and achieve their goals. Data suggests some relationship between academic library workers’ outlooks on life and confidence in achieving their goals, as well as a correlation between goal setting strategies and achieving goals. The authors express optimism that 20% of participants who set New Year's resolutions chose to list occupational goals as their top goals, especially considering that resolution-setting comprises an incredibly broad array of options. The authors suggest that data can be used by academic library administrators to increase worker job performance, improve worker wellness, establish mentorship programs, and train workers to set attainable goals.
Objective – While storytime programs for preschool children are offered in nearly all public libraries in the United States, little is known about the books librarians use in these programs. This study employed text analysis to explore topics and genres of books recommended for public library storytime programs.
Methods – In the study, the researchers randomly selected 429 children books recommended for preschool storytime programs. Two corpuses of text were extracted from the titles, abstracts, and subject terms from bibliographic data. Multiple text mining methods were employed to investigate the content of the selected books, including term frequency, bi-gram analysis, topic modeling, and sentiment analysis.
Results – The findings revealed popular topics in storytime books, including animals/creatures, color, alphabet, nature, movements, families, friends, and others. The analysis of bibliographic data described various genres and formats of storytime books, such as juvenile fiction, rhymes, board books, pictorial work, poetry, folklore, and nonfiction. Sentiment analysis results reveal that storytime books included a variety of words representing various dimensions of sentiment.
Conclusion – The findings suggested that books recommended for storytime programs are centered around topics of interest to children that also support school readiness. In addition to selecting fictionalized stories that will support children in developing the academic concepts and socio-emotional skills necessary for later success, librarians should also be mindful of integrating informational texts into storytime programs.
A Review of:
Tran, N. Y., & Chan, E. K. (2020). Seeking and finding research collaborators: An exploratory study of librarian motivations, strategies, and success rates. College & Research Libraries, 81(7), 1095. https://doi.org/10.5860/crl.81.7.1095
Objective – To explore research collaboration among librarians, including librarians’ motivations for collaboration, methods for finding collaborators, and how they perceive the success of these methods.
Design – Online survey questionnaire.
Setting – N/A
Subjects – A total of 412 librarians took the survey, and 277 respondents completed the entire survey.
Methods – The researchers developed a survey using Qualtrics, including questions focused on whether respondents had sought research collaboration, factors that motivated them to collaborate, methods they used for finding collaborators, and success rates of these methods. Demographic questions were also included.
Main Results – The survey results indicated that librarians are very interested in research collaboration, with 91.8% of respondents answering that they had sought collaborators, were currently collaborating, or were interested in seeking collaborators in the
future. The top motivating factor for seeking collaboration was to gain expertise that the respondent lacked. The most common strategy for finding collaborators was through a respondent’s current or past place of employment, and this method was rated as extremely successful by more than 50% of respondents. Demographically, 70.1% of respondents worked in academic libraries.
Conclusion – The results of this study indicate that research collaboration is of interest to librarians at a higher rate than previously observed. These results can help inform initiatives to support and promote collaboration in library and information science research, as well as provide a groundwork for further research in this area.
A Review of:
Pun, R. (2021). Understanding the roles of public libraries and digital exclusion through critical race theory: An exploratory study of people of color in California affected by the digital divide and the pandemic. Urban Library Journal, 26(2). https://academicworks.cuny.edu/ulj/vol26/iss2/1/
Objective – This study explored the role of the public library in the support of patrons of color who experience digital exclusion.
Design – In-person and telephone interviews, grounded theory, and critical race theory.
Setting – Public libraries in California.
Subjects – Persons of color who were active public library technology resource users due to experiencing the digital divide.
Methods – In-person, 60- to 90-minute interviews were conducted with participants referred to the author by public librarians at select libraries in California. Sixteen open-ended questions were asked, relating to demographics, access to technology at home, library technology access and use, technology skills, and thoughts on how libraries could change or improve technology services. A 20- to 30-minute follow-up interview was conducted during the phase of the Covid-19 pandemic when public libraries were closed. Interview transcripts were analyzed by the author, who created a codebook of common themes. Responses were analyzed through the lens of grounded theory and critical race theory.
Main Results – Nine participants were recruited; six consented to the first interview and two of the six consented to the second interview. Four of the participants self-reported as Asian, one as Black/African American, and one as Hispanic/Latino American. None of the participants had internet access in their homes, though some reported having laptops or inconsistent cellular service.
Common uses of library technology included job search activities (resume building, job searching, applications); schoolwork; research and skill development; and legal or housing form finding. Leisure activities including social media and YouTube were also mentioned.
Access limitations included inconvenient library hours, particularly for those attending college or holding a job with daytime hours, and physical distance from the library. A common complaint was the time limit on computer access set by the library; “the concept of time” was mentioned “over 70 times collectively by all participants” (p. 14).
Language was another barrier to access, mentioned by three of the participants. Most reported being more likely to ask for help from a library staff person who shared their language or had a similar background. Participants also reported wishing more technology workshops were offered, especially workshops in languages other than English.
The two participants who took part in the second interview “expressed frustration and sadness” about the lack of library access during the Covid-19 pandemic (p. 16). One participant reported having to get internet access at her home for her children to attend school. The second participant expressed her difficulty in conducting research or printing information with only the small screen of her phone to provide access.
Conclusion – Library patrons of color living within the digital divide make use of public library technology but experience multiple barriers. Libraries can alleviate these barriers by examining their hours, policies, and staffing models to be more accessible to patrons of color lacking internet access at home.
A Review of:
Barr-Walker, J., Hoffner, C., McMunn-Tetangco, E., & Mody, N. (2021). Sexual harassment at University of California Libraries: Understanding the experiences of library staff members. College & Research Libraries, 82(2), 237. https://doi.org/10.5860/crl.82.2.237
Objective – To identify whether academic library workers at the University of California Libraries (UCL) system experienced or observed sexual harassment and to measure their reporting and disclosure behavior.
Design – Anonymous online survey with open and closed-end questions.
Setting – All UCL system campuses (Berkeley, Davis, Irvine, Los Angeles, Merced, Riverside, Santa Barbara, Santa Cruz, San Diego, and San Francisco).
Subjects – All 1610 non-student employees working in UCL system were invited to participate, 579 (36%) responded.
Methods – The authors engaged multiple stakeholder groups to refine and promote this census of UCL non-student workers. The survey was distributed via REDCap and remained open for six weeks of November to December 2018. All questions were optional. Certain demographic information was not collected because respondents might have been identified via deductive disclosure. The first author conducted descriptive statistical analysis and pairs of authors conducted thematic analysis.
Main Results – More than half of respondents experienced or observed sexual harassment in the workplace; women were more likely to experience than observe and vice versa for men. Harassment was most likely to be exhibited by a coworker. Less than half of respondents felt that the UCL system administration considered the issue important. Nearly three out of every four respondents who had experienced harassment at work chose not to report or disclose; this did not vary significantly between women and men.
Conclusion – Sexual harassment of library workers, often by other library workers, is widespread. Staff training and policies should incorporate the reality of gender harassment and commenting on a person's appearance—the two most common forms of harassment exhibited and observed.
Objective – The aim of this study is to update our understanding of how Canadian post-secondary institutions address copyright education, management, and policy matters since our last survey conducted in 2015. Through the new survey, we seek to shed further light on what is known about post-secondary educational copying and contribute to filling some knowledge gaps such as those identified in the 2017 statutory review of the Canadian Copyright Act.
Methods – In early 2020, a survey invitation was sent to the person or office responsible for oversight of copyright matters at member institutions of five Canadian regional academic library consortia. The study methods used were largely the same as those employed in our 2015 survey on copyright practices of Canadian universities.
Results – In 2020, respondents were fewer in number but represented a wider variety of types of post-secondary institutions. In general, responsibility for copyright services and management decisions seemed to be concentrated in the library or copyright office. Topics covered and methods used in copyright education remained relatively unchanged, as did issues addressed in copyright policies. Areas reflecting some changes included blanket collective licensing, the extent of executive responsibility for copyright, and approaches to copyright education. At most participating institutions, fewer than two staff were involved in copyright services and library licenses were the permissions source most frequently relied on “very often.” Few responded to questions on the use of specialized permissions management tools and compliance monitoring.
Conclusion – Copyright practices and policies at post-secondary institutions will continue to evolve and respond to changes in case law, legislation, pedagogical approaches, and students’ learning needs. The recent Supreme Court of Canada ruling on approved copying tariffs and fair dealing provides some clarity to educational institutions regarding options for managing copyright obligations and reaffirms the importance of user’s rights in maintaining a proper balance between public and private interests in Canadian copyright law.
A Review of:
Mongeon, P., Siler, K., Archambault, A., Sugimoto, C. R., & Larivière, V. (2021). Collection development in the era of big deals. College & Research Libraries, 82(2), 219–236. https://doi.org/10.5860/crl.82.2.219
Objective – (1) Present a method of journal appraisal that combines reference list, article download, and survey data. (2) Gauge journal usage patterns across selected universities.
Design – Analysis of reference lists, article downloads, and survey data.
Setting – 28 Canadian universities.
Subjects – 47,012 distinct academic journal titles.
Methods – Download data for the 2011-2015 period was sourced from standard Journal Report 1 (JR1) usage reports as supplied by the vendors. Download figures were summed for journals that were available through multiple platforms. Reference list data (i.e., the number of times documents published in each journal were cited by authors affiliated with a participating institution) was sourced from Clarivate Analytics’ Web of Science, limiting for the years 2011-2015. An unknown number of researchers at 23 of the 28 participating universities were invited by email to complete a survey. The survey asked respondents to list the scholarly journals they considered essential for their research and teaching (up to 10 journals for each purpose).
The three datasets (download, reference list, and survey data) were then merged. Duplicates and non-academic journals were removed. Journals were then grouped into broad discipline areas. A list of “core journals” (p. 228) was created for each institution. These journals produce 80% of downloads, 80% of citations, or 80% of survey mentions at each institution. A journal only had to reach the threshold in one category (i.e., in either downloads, citations, or mentions) to make it onto the core journals list. A “low” (p. 228) survey response rate meant “one mention [was] generally enough" (p. 228) for a journal to be classified as core.
Main results – Fewer than 500 titles (n=484, ~1%) made it to the core journals list at all 28 universities. Two thirds (66%, n unknown) of journals did not make it onto the core list of any university. Of the journals deemed to be core, most (60%, n unknown) were shared across all institutions. On average, platforms from not-for-profit organizations and scientific societies contain a higher proportion of core journals than for-profit platforms. Notably, 63.6% of Springer journals, 58.9% of Taylor & Francis journals, and 45.8% of Elsevier’s journals do not appear on the core journal list of any university.
Conclusion – Libraries should consider ways to share resources and work more cooperatively in their negotiations with publishers. Further, libraries may be able to cancel entire journal bundles without this having a “sizable” (p. 233) impact on resource access.
A Review of:
Schultheiß, S., & Lewandowski, D. (2021). How users’ knowledge of advertisements influences their viewing and selection behavior in search engines. Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 72(3), 285–301. https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.24410
Objective – To examine how users’ understanding of ads on search engine results pages (SERPs) influences their viewing and selection behaviour on computers and smartphones.
Design – Mixed methods approach consisting of pre-study interview, eye-tracking experiment, and post-study questionnaire.
Setting – Usability lab at a university in Germany.
Subjects – 50 students enrolled at the Hamburg University of Applied Sciences and 50 non-students recruited in Hamburg.
Methods – After giving informed consent and receiving payment, participants provided information on demographics as well as how they use search engines as part of a pre-study interview. For the eye-tracking experiment, each participant completed 10 tasks each on a desktop computer and smartphone. Both the device condition order and task order were randomized. Tasks were broken down into five informational tasks (e.g., how do I build a desktop computer?), three transactional tasks (e.g., how would I go about buying a refrigerator?), and two navigational tasks (e.g., I need to go to the Apple website). The software displayed clickable screenshots of SERPs, and all clicks were recorded. iMotions eye-tracking software recorded eye fixations on areas of the page featuring organic search results and paid ads. A post-experiment questionnaire asked participants about Google’s business model and probed them about the extent to which they were able to differentiate between organic results and ads. Answers to the questionnaire were weighted and normalized to form a 0–100 scale.
Main Results – The first set of research hypotheses examining the correlation between participants’ knowledge of ads and viewing and clicking behaviour was partially confirmed. There was no significant correlation between participants’ questionnaire score and visual fixations on ads, but there was a significant negative correlation between questionnaire score and the number of clicks on ads. Users with questionnaire scores in the bottom quartile paid significantly less attention to organic results than those in the top quartile, but users in the top quartile still fixated on ads and did so comparably to users in the bottom quartile. The second set of research hypotheses examining the relationship between viewing and clicking behaviour and device (desktop versus mobile) was also partially confirmed. Users on a smartphone had significantly higher fixation rates on ads than users on a desktop computer, although click rates on ads did not differ significantly between the two conditions.
Conclusion – Knowledge about ads on SERPs influences selection behaviour. Users with a low level of knowledge on search advertising are more likely to click on ads than those with a high level of knowledge. Users on smartphones are also more likely to pay visual attention to ads, probably because the smaller screen size narrows content “above the fold.”
A Review of:
Kumar, M., & Mostafa, J. (2020). Electronic health records for better health in lower- and middle-income countries: A landscape study. Library Hi Tech, 38(4), 751–767. https://doi.org/10.1108/LHT-09-2019-0179
Objective – To identify how low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) approached the development of national and subnational electronic health records (EHRs) and to understand the challenges related to EHR research priorities and sustainability.
Design – Landscape study consisting of a review of the scientific literature, country-focused grey literature, and consultation with international experts.
Setting – Hospitals and healthcare systems within LMICs.
Subjects – The 402 publications retrieved through a systematic search of four scientific electronic databases along with 49 publications found through a country-focused analysis of grey literature and 14 additional publications found through consultation with two international experts.
Methods – On 15 May 2019, the authors comprehensively searched four major scientific
databases: Global Health, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. They also searched the grey literature and repositories in consultation with country-based international digital health experts. The authors subsequently used Mendeley reference management software to organize and remove duplicate publications. Peer-reviewed publications that focused on developing national EHRs within LMIC healthcare systems were included for the title and abstract screening. Data analysis was mainly qualitative, and the results were organized to highlight stakeholders, health information architecture (HIA), and sustainability.
Main Results – The results were presented in three subsections. The first two described critical stakeholders for developing national and subnational EHRs and HIA, including country eHealth foundations, EHRs, and subsystems. The third section presented and discussed pressing challenges related to EHR sustainability. The findings of the three subsections were further explored through the presentation of three LMIC case studies that described stakeholders, HIA, and sustainability challenges.
Conclusion – The results of this landscape study highlighted the scant evidence available to develop and sustain national and subnational EHRs within LMICs. The authors noted that there appears to be a gap in understanding how EHRs impact patient-level and population outcomes within the LMICs. The study revealed that EHRs were primarily designed to support monitoring and evaluating health programs focused on a particular disease or group of diseases rather than common health problems. While national governments and international donors focused on the role of EHRs to improve patient care, the authors highlighted the urgent need for further research on the development of EHRs, with a focus on efficiency, evaluation, monitoring, and quality within the national healthcare enterprise.
A Review of:
Henderson, S., McGreal, R., & Vladimirschi, V. (2018). Access Copyright and fair dealing guidelines in higher educational institutions in Canada: A survey. Partnership: The Canadian Journal of Library and Information Practice and Research, 13(2), 1-37. https://doi.org/10.21083/partnership.v13i2.4147
Objective – To investigate the interpretations of fair dealing applied across Canadian post-secondary educational institutions outside of Quebec and to determine whether such institutions have a licence with Access Copyright.
Design – Descriptive/quantitative study.
Setting – Canadian post-secondary education sector, excluding Quebec.
Subjects – A total of 159 Canadian post-secondary institutions outside of Quebec, including 75 universities and 84 colleges.
Methods – A list of Canadian post-secondary educational institutions outside of Quebec was compiled. Data from participants relating to the research objective—reliance on an Access Copyright licence or use and interpretation of fair dealing—was collected via internet searches or, if unavailable online, via direct telephone communication with participants.
Main Results – A majority of Canadian post-secondary educational institutions outside of Quebec, approximately 78% (124 institutions), did not have a licence with Access Copyright. The smaller the institution, the likelier it was to have an Access Copyright licence. This was in part linked to the fact that smaller institutions typically do not have staff specializing in copyright; savings from terminating Access Copyright licences (charged on a per student basis) would not justify the creation of such positions. Regarding fair dealing, 18% of study participants based their approach on the Supreme Court of Canada’s six-factor test (29 institutions), while 53% applied the fair dealing guidelines created by Universities Canada (85 institutions).
Conclusion – Most of the institutions studied did not have Access Copyright licences and were relying on fair dealing instead, suggesting a bellwether for the copyright climate in the Canadian higher education sector towards fair dealing. Institutions may benefit from a future national consensus regarding interpretations of fair dealing concepts.
A Review of:
Peekhaus, W. (2018). Seed libraries: Sowing the seeds for community and public library resilience. Library Quarterly, 88(3), 271-285. https://doi.org/10.1086/697706
Objective – To describe and investigate the establishment, operation, function, purpose, and benefit of seed libraries within public libraries and local communities.
Design – Exploratory study.
Setting – Public seed libraries in Arizona, California, Minnesota, New York, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.
Subjects – 10 librarians actively involved in creating or maintaining seed libraries.
Methods – 60-75 minute interviews, primarily over the phone, with subjects selected by means of purposive sampling.
Main Results – According to the participants interviewed, starting and operating a seed library requires front-end effort from the “host” library, active participation by a dedicated librarian and community members, as well as ongoing funding, usually on an annual basis (estimated by one participant to be $2,500/year, mostly for the purchase of seeds). Participant descriptions of their seed library operations differed, but most had a dedicated seed librarian. Participants noted that primary activities included deciding what seeds to put in the collection, arrangement of the seed collection, development of checkout and return procedures, and ongoing education. Several participants noted that such operational work was seasonal and not steady. None of the libraries included in this study had enough seeds donated to sustain their collections, but rather they relied on purchasing seeds in bulk or asking for donations from seed companies. Cataloging procedures varied in terms of complexity, and participants from one library system reported the use of a seed library cataloging template as being helpful. All participants noted they gave patrons containers to return seeds. While educating patrons in formal sessions is often difficult for reasons such as resource limitations, the interview informants agreed that seed libraries fit into the missions of public libraries by furthering information sharing, access to resources, and knowledge development.
Conclusion – Seed libraries are an active service that assist public libraries in responding to social challenges and in engaging with their local communities as a type of knowledge commons. Seed libraries align with public libraries’ shift in priorities from increasing physical collections to enriching lives by providing knowledge and tools to support food autonomy, self-sufficiency, civic engagement, and community education. These libraries are a novel service that engage and attract patrons and support libraries’ positions as community hubs.
Objective – Evidence based medical education requires supportive information services to facilitate access to the needed educational evidence. Information services designed specifically for evidence based medical education are limited or locally developed for educational units. For librarians to have an opportunity to cooperate efficiently with medical educators in evidence based medical education, they require an empirical prototype for transmission of clinical evidence at the right place and the right time. Therefore, there is a need to recognize types of information services which support evidence based medical education. The purpose of this review is to identify implementation trends of evidence based educational information services.
Methods – We found related studies by implementing search strategies in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, LISTA, and Google Scholar with keywords like: evidence based medical education, information services, and library services. We used reference-checking and citation-checking of related articles for completing the process of locating relevant articles. After employing inclusion and exclusion criteria, we selected 11 articles for inclusion in the review and analyzed them using a narrative review technique.
Results – After analyzing the results of the included studies, we identified two elements categorized as program development and five elements categorized as implementation trend. Prerequisites of program and the process of designing were essential parts of program development of information services. Schedule and type of access, how to receive educational-clinical questions, information services types, responding time, and providing evidence based outputs were the elements of the implementation process of educational supported information services.
Conclusion – Designing an evidence based educational information service strongly depends on the information needs of learners at each educational level. Schedule and type of access to information service, time of responding to the received query, and preparation of evidence based output are essential factors in designing practical educational-developed information services.
A Review of:
Mei, X. Y., Aas, E., & Eide, O. (2020). Applying the servicescape model to understand student experiences of a Norwegian academic library. Library & Information Science Research, 42(4), Article 101051. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lisr.2020.101051
Objective – To understand how the physical environment of an academic library influences user behaviour.
Design – Qualitative explorative.
Setting – An academic library at a large university in Norway.
Subjects – Twelve bachelor’s and master’s students at a business school.
Methods – The researchers used a two-step approach, with the servicescape model from the marketing discipline serving as a theoretical framework. Subjects completed several tasks involving drawing and elaborating on their usage of the library space, utilizing a bird’s-eye floor plan. This was followed by semi-structured interviews to explore how subjects use and experience the library facilities.
Main Results – Students found it important to be physically comfortable and to have enough room for the items they need while studying. The library in this study was seen more as a place for studying than for social interactions, and while some subjects reported being motivated by seeing students around them studying, others said they are distracted by having other students in their sightline. The time of the semester appeared to influence user experience and satisfaction with the library space, with spaces conducive to group work desired at some points in the semester and with single seating preferred when individual exams are taking place.
Conclusion – The library’s physical environment triggers cognitive and emotional responses in users. These responses influence how frequently they visit the library and how well they are able to concentrate while there. Because academic library spaces have an impact on student learning, it is important to design libraries with user comfort in mind. Libraries should accommodate the different ways students work throughout the semester by providing flexible study space configurations.
A Review of:
Bierman, J., Ortega, L., & Rupp-Serrano, K. (2010). E-book usage in pure and applied sciences. Science & technology libraries, 29(1-2), 69-91. https://doi.org/10.1080/01942620903579393
Objective – To determine the usage of and attitudes toward e-books among faculty in the applied and pure sciences.
Design – Online survey and in-person interviews.
Setting – A large public university in the United States.
Subjects – 11 faculty members.
Methods – Participants completed an 11-item survey covering demographic data and questions about electronic book experience and preferences. This was followed up by an in-person interview with the researchers. The interviews were structured into three sections: opening questions about e-book usage, an interactive demonstration and discussion of two preselected e-books, and final follow-up questions. Interviews followed a general script of prepared questions, but also encouraged open discussion and dialogue.
Main Results – Most participants in the study reported limited experience with e-books and only 3 of the 11 participants reported using library-purchased e-books in their research and instruction. Participants noted ease of access and searchability as key advantages of e-books. Concerns included the belief that reading and learning is more difficult on a desktop computer, as well as concerns about the stability and reliability of e-book access. Participants also felt negatively about the necessity to create a new login profile and password to access e-books. The study found no difference in the way faculty in pure and applied sciences approached e-books.
Conclusion – The authors determine that e-books will likely become more commonly used in academia. Users want e-books that are easy to use and customizable. In addition, the authors conclude that librarians need to understand their patrons’ needs as e-book users and proactively promote and market their e-book collections.
Objective – This study uses quantitative methods to determine if the metadata requirements of institutional repositories (IRs) promote data discovery. This question is addressed through an exploration of an international sample of university IRs, including an analysis of the required metadata elements for data deposit, with a particular focus on how these metadata support discovery of research data objects.
Methods – The researchers worked with an international universe of 243 IRs. A codebook of 10 variables was developed to enable analysis of the eventual randomly derived sample of 40 institutions.
Results – The analysis of our sample IRs revealed that most had metadata standards that offered weak support for data discovery—an unsurprising revelation in view of the fact that university IRs are meant to accommodate deposit and storage of all types of scholarly outputs, only a small percentage of which are research data objects. Most IRs seem to have adopted metadata standards based on the Dublin Core schema, while none of the IRs in our sample used the Data Documentation Initiative metadata that is better suited for deposit and discovery of research datasets.
Conclusion – The study demonstrates that while data deposit can be accommodated by the existing metadata requirements of multi-purpose IRs, their metadata practices do little to prioritize data deposit or to promote data discovery. Evidence indicates that data discovery will benefit from additional metadata elements.
Objective – Libraries have had to temporarily shut their doors because of the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in the provision of online and remote services. This review analyzed services offered by libraries, the technological tools used, and the challenges facing libraries during the pandemic.
Methods – This study employed a systematic literature review, following the PRISMA checklist (Moher at al., 2009). The Building Blocks search strategy was employed to search for keywords of concepts in Library and Information Science Abstract (LISA), Library and Information Science Technology Abstract (LISTA), Library Science Database, Web of Science (WoS) core collections, and Google Scholar. A set of inclusion and exclusion criteria was pre-determined by the authors prior to database searching. Quality assessment of included studies was performed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (Hong et al., 2018). A tabular approach was used to provide a summary of each article allowing the synthesis of results, which led to the identification of eight broad categories of services provided by libraries in included studies.
Results – The first set of searches from the 5 databases produced 3,499 results. After we removed duplicates and applied the inclusion and exclusion criteria based on titles and abstracts, 37 potentially relevant articles were identified. Further screening of the full-text led to the final inclusion of 23 articles used for the qualitative synthesis. The majority of the studies were conducted in the United States of America (n= 6, 26.1%), followed by India (n=4, 17%), and China (n=2, 8.7%). The remaining studies were carried out in United Kingdom, Ireland, Canada, Mexico, Romania, Czech Republic, Indonesia, Pakistan, Nigeria, Lesotho, and Zimbabwe. The most common method used in selected studies was the case study (n= 11, 48%), followed by survey (n=7, 30.4%), content analysis (n=4, 17.4%), and mixed methods (n=1, 4.3%). The majority of the studies were carried out in academic libraries (74%), while the rest were based on medical, public, and special libraries. Findings show that the majority of academic libraries in the included studies are providing and expanding access to electronic resources (n=16, 69.6%) and increasing open access resources and services (n=11, 47.8%). More so, most academic libraries are assisting in virtual education and teaching endeavors of faculty and students (n=13, 56.5%). In addition, some medical and public libraries are bolstering public health safety through health literacy (n=12, 52.2%), supporting research efforts, and engaging in virtual reference services, among others. In order to carry out these services, libraries are harnessing several educational, social networking, communication, and makerspaces technologies. Most of the libraries in the included studies reported budgetary challenges, and the need for new ICT infrastructure and Internet service as they move their services online.
Conclusion – This review found that libraries are adapting in a number of ways to continue their roles in meeting patrons’ needs in spite of the growing challenges posed by COVID-19 restrictions and lockdown. For libraries to thrive in these trying times, there must be a well-structured approach to ensuring continuity of services. Libraries should prioritize the acquisition of electronic resources as well as increase their efforts to digitize resources that are only available in printed copies. As library services have predominantly shifted online, there should be concerted effort and support from government and funding agencies to equip libraries with the technological facilities needed to provide cutting-edge services. The quality assessment of the included studies shows that there is need for rigor and transparency in the methodological description of studies investigating library services provision in a pandemic. This review provides an overview of the ways libraries have responded to the challenges posed by a global pandemic, and hence will be of use and interest to all librarians especially those in health and academic sectors.