With government and industry experiencing a critical shortage of trained cybersecurity professionals, organisations are spearheading various training programs to cultivate cybersecurity skills. With more people working from home and the existing cybersecurity staff shortages, cybercriminals are increasingly exploiting new and existing vulnerabilities by launching ubiquitous cyberattacks. This study focuses on how to close the gap in cybersecurity skills through interest cultivation and self-determined motivation. Our study shows that situational interest (SI) in cybersecurity along with situational motivational determinants (i.e., perceived learning autonomy and perceived relatedness) engendered self-determined motivation toward cybersecurity training. Consequently, self-determined motivation facilitated actual learning behaviour. Meanwhile, individual interest in cybersecurity created positive moderating effects in the relationships between self-determination and its key antecedents (i.e., perceived relatedness and situational interest). Based on these findings, we provide research implications accordingly.
The COVID-19 pandemic demanded an immediate response from the research community, including adjustment to how researchers undertake research. As in many fields, information systems scholars attempted ‘rapid response’ research that addresses the immediate crisis. This paper reviews the state of the immediate research and scholarly discussion in the information systems field. Seventy-one journal papers are reviewed. The review categorises nine thematic areas and one broad area of discussion. The methods by which information systems scholars address immediate research questions are identified. The contributions are discussed, future research directions are outlined and a model is proposed that traces the pathway from initiation of research/generation of new knowledge to practice impact. A further model is proposed to help information systems scholars clearly establish the link between the study of information systems phenomena and COVID-19.
Despite significant information technology (IT) implementations in public administrations of developing countries to change their dysfunctional traditional practices towards modern forms, the outcomes are typically disappointing relative to the potential of IT for organizational change. With a case study of the customs clearance process when importing goods through Ghana's main port, the Tema Harbour, we explore why IT struggles to modernize traditional practices of public administration in a developing country context. We focus on explaining the persistence of paper use at Ghana customs despite more than a decade of digitalization and automation to establish paperless processes that eliminate malpractices of traditional clearance. We view modernization as a process of long-term institutional change and therefore draw from the literature on IT and institutional change to focus our investigation on the dynamics of incongruent institutional logics of IT and public administration. We show that in the administration context of a developing country like Ghana, the endurance of patrimonial logics in the state and broader society, coupled with high levels of administrative discretion and ambivalent or weak compliance pressure limit the realization of IT for modernization and allows hybrid practices to emerge.
Algorithmic fairness (AF) has been framed as a newly emerging technology that mitigates systemic discrimination in automated decision-making, providing opportunities to improve fairness in information systems (IS). However, based on a state-of-the-art literature review, we argue that fairness is an inherently social concept and that technologies for AF should therefore be approached through a sociotechnical lens. We advance the discourse on AF as a sociotechnical phenomenon. Our research objective is to embed AF in the sociotechnical view of IS. Specifically, we elaborate on why outcomes of a system that uses algorithmic means to assure fairness depend on mutual influences between technical and social structures. This perspective can generate new insights that integrate knowledge from both technical fields and social studies. Further, it spurs new directions for IS debates. We contribute as follows: First, we problematize fundamental assumptions in the current discourse on AF based on a systematic analysis of 310 articles. Second, we respond to these assumptions by theorizing AF as a sociotechnical construct. Third, we propose directions for IS researchers to enhance their impacts by pursuing a unique understanding of sociotechnical AF. We call for and undertake a holistic approach to AF. A sociotechnical perspective on AF can yield holistic solutions to systemic biases and discrimination.
Organisations across many industries are increasing the use of evidence-based approaches to decision-making through adoption of business analytics. Creative processes and decisions are an area of organisational decision-making which has traditionally been highly intuition-based, and where professional culture and practices are often very different from the engineering disciplines from which data-driven decision approaches originate. Through the case study of the analytics-oriented transformation of creative decisions at Rovio, a leading game development company, this study seeks to understand how organisations can make their creative decision processes more evidence-based, while retaining the best features of artistic intuition and human creativity. The case study highlights several issues that need to be delicately managed and balanced to effectively combine analytics and human creativity, and offers five principles for such “creative analytics”: (1) build shared analytics values but provide tailored BA support; (2) build hybrid teams; (3) balance commercial and creative goals; (4) encourage creative experimentation and learning; and (5) make data-inspired, not data-driven, creative decisions.
China is one of the largest and fastest-growing markets for live streaming, and the purchase of virtual gifts in live streaming is the core for streamers and live streaming platforms in China to survive and thrive. Compared to western countries, live streaming in China highlights the lively social atmosphere and heated social interactions among streamers and viewers. This study develops a cultural context-sensitive model that contextualises the purchase of virtual gifts in live streaming in China. Specifically, we focus on the viewer's social experience and the social atmosphere in live streaming which have received limited attention yet. We introduce viewers' social perceptions with regard to the streamer and other viewers (ie, perceived proximity to the streamer and sense of belonging to the viewer crowd) and show how such social perceptions contribute to the development of flow experience, which subsequently leads to purchase intention. This study also reveals how such social perceptions can be shaped by the contextual setting consisting of the IT-related factors of live streaming (ie, responsiveness, two-way communication, social presence, and self-presentation) and the cultural characteristics of China (ie, social orientation and harmony). Our research offers both theoretical guidance for practitioners into cultivating viewers' purchase of virtual gifts in China's live streaming.
Most information systems (IS) research takes for granted that consumers' adoption and the use of mobile payment (MP) applications are motivated by generic factors such as perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. Challenging this assumption, we argue that the salient contextual characteristics of MP applications compel a reconsideration and problematization of research on MP adoption and use. Drawing on network effect theory, we examined how contextual network effects and contextual network types determine MP consumer loyalty. Using a mixed methods design, we find that direct network effects (i.e., network size, network centrality, network capability), indirect network effects (i.e., platform–application complementarity, application–service complementarity, service–strategy complementarity) and negative network effects (i.e., general institutional structure, general structural assurance, local institutional structure and local structural assurance) are key determinants of perceived benefits, which further promote MP consumer loyalty. Furthermore, except for general institutional structure and general structural assurance, all of the network effects are important predictors of switching costs, which influence MP consumer loyalty. Finally, the impacts of network effects on MP consumer loyalty differ between consumer- and service-oriented networks. Our study enriches the IS literature by problematizing the core assumption underlying the MP adoption and use research and offering a contextual explanation of MP consumer loyalty. Our work also provides practitioners with insights into how to better leverage network effects on MP consumer loyalty.
The opinions and behaviours of others are recognised as powerful mechanisms for social influence in the digital sphere. The former, often referred to as electronic word of mouth (eWOM), is a thoroughly researched topic in the Information Systems literature. Conversely, the digital display of users' behaviours (e.g., number of past purchases) is less well understood despite the widespread adoption of this practice on digital platforms. Quantitative research has explored this interesting domain and found that observing others' behaviours entice observers to follow suit, but has left unaddressed the question of what sensemaking users derive from behavioural information. This is problematic as behavioural information is more open to interpretation compared to eWOM. In this article, we adopt the concept of electronic word of behaviour (eWOB) to denote such behavioural information. Through the lens of basic psychological needs theory and the qualitative means-end chain approach, we expose how eWOB is interpreted and used by users of a digital platform, the music service Spotify. We find that eWOB leads to satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for relatedness and competence when observing others' behaviours. We also show how exposure to one's own past behaviours can yield a positive sense of self when presented in meaningful and private manners, but that it can also negatively impact users when their needs for autonomy and competence are not heeded by the digital platform. Finally, based on our empirical findings we offer a set of design implications for how digital platforms can optimise the use of eWOB.
Action research (AR) involves one or more researchers and a client organisation. Many guidelines for and reports of the research method have been published. However, the ethical issues associated with AR have been largely neglected. Our review of the AR literature found that ethical dilemmas and their resolution are rarely and inconsistently reported. Stimulated by this neglect and our personal experiences, we aim to raise awareness and understanding about the ethics of planning, conducting and reporting AR. We identify and discuss four issues of concern that merit specific ethical attention when conducting AR: collaboration, competence, persistence and consent. We draw on these four issues in an analysis that augments the principles and criteria for canonical AR (CAR), recently reified as Integrated Action Research (IAR). Our guidance includes an additional principle of AR and 10 associated criteria to address the ethics of AR participation.
Virtual teams face the unique challenge of coordinating their knowledge work across time, space, and people. Information technologies, and digital artefacts in particular, are essential to supporting coordination in highly dispersed teams, yet the extant literature is limited in explaining how such teams produce and reproduce digital artefacts for coordination. This paper describes a qualitative case study that examined the day-to-day practices of two highly dispersed virtual teams, with the initial conceptual lens informed by Carlile's (2004) knowledge management framework. Our observations suggest that knowledge coordination in these highly dispersed virtual teams involves the continuous production and reproduction of digital artefacts (which we refer to as technology practices) through three paired modes: ‘presenting-accessing’ (related to knowledge transfer); ‘representing-adding’ (related to knowledge translation); and ‘moulding-challenging’ (related to knowledge transformation). We also observed an unexpected fourth pair of technology practices, ‘withholding-ignoring,’ that had the effect of delaying certain knowledge coordination processes. Our findings contribute to both the knowledge coordination literature and the practical use of digital artefacts in virtual teams. Future research directions are discussed.
Digital creativity (DC) stands for employee's generation of useful and fresh ideas through the use of digital technologies, which is one of the prominent consequences of effective digital technology use. Drawing insights from the tripartite view of technology use (ie, technology, individual and task elements) and the social role lens, our study proposes and tests an integrative theoretical framework to understand how female and male employees progress from ambidextrous learning in digital technology use to DC. We first interviewed five frontline employees and then surveyed 221 employees that were different from the interview sample from eight organisations. All participants utilised a similar version of internet-of-things (IoT) in their daily work. We find that (a) exploitative use has a stronger influence on DC for women than for men, while explorative use displays a higher impact on DC for men than for women, and (b) technology digital affordance (TDA), digital knowledge (DK), and task variety (TV) exhibit significant influences on both exploitative and explorative uses to varying extents. The post-hoc analysis reveals that exploitative use mediates the influences of TDA and DK on DC only for women; explorative use mediates the impacts of TDA and TV on DC only for men. Our study advances the understandings of the downstream impact of technology use in the digital context.
This research examines the socially significant issue of doctors' resistance to healthcare information technology (HIT) from the radical power perspective. It adopts Bourdieu's social practice theory to examine the interaction of HIT with the reproduction of doctors' historically rooted social standing through the doctor-patient-interaction (D-P-I) practice. Findings from our ethnographic enquiry at a large corporate healthcare organisation in India link doctors' historically rooted social standing to the symbolic recognition of their embodied emotional capital existing in tandem with their habitus. The symbolic recognition of emotional capital provided a better valorisation of clinical capital and allowed the accumulation of other forms of capital—institutionalised capital, social capital and economic capital—that formed doctors' capital structure and contributed to their social status. Doctors produced emotional capital by putting their habitus into practice and, in the process, reproduced its symbolic status and their social status linked to it. HIT challenged doctors to put their habitus into practice, thereby creating a perception of threat to emotional capital. Doctors' HIT resistance was a conservation strategy to reproduce their historically rooted higher social status. Findings from this study contribute to the literature on Power and IT resistance.
In software platform ecosystems, the technological and structural peculiarities vest the platform owner with an extremely powerful position that puts any complementor at the mercy of the platform owner's actions. Paradoxically, it is the self-determination and proactivity of the complementors that determine the ecosystem's success through their surprising outside innovations. This study addresses this power paradox by unpacking the power dynamics between platform owners and complementors. Based on an exploratory multiple-case study of six platform partnerships, we find that power in platform ecosystems unfolds as a reciprocal process of three interlocking cycles, in which both the platform owner and the complementors take an active role. The modus operandi of power in platform ecosystems is a “central power cycle” in which the complementors repeatedly evaluate whether to accept or reject the platform owner's domination power. Thriving partnerships sustain this central power cycle over time, which requires that the platform owner and the complementors dynamically adapt their wielding of power to the changing needs of the partnership (partnership adaptation cycle) or the ecosystem (ecosystem redefinition cycle). For the platform owner, this entails the occasional use of manipulation to favour a particular partnership or redefining the ecosystem's framework and sporadically wielding coercion in favour of the broader ecosystem. For the complementor, this entails over-subjectification to entice the platform owner to wield its power in favour of their partnership. Our findings have important implications for platform ecosystem and power theory, as well as managerial practice.
E-participation platforms create spaces and opportunities for participation and collaboration between governments and citizens. This paper aims to investigate the role of power on formal e-participation platforms and digital spaces that are controlled by the governments. Although those types of platforms have been increasing in numerous countries, they have been criticised as often leading to a lack of or decrease in citizen engagement. We propose a relational view that examines how power is related to the use of resources in practice, that is, to resourcing. To explore this issue, we examine citizens' participation on three urban mobility platforms in three major Brazilian cities. Our study makes two main contributions. First, we contribute to the literature on e-participation by explaining how a relational view of power helps to understand the nature and consequences of citizen participation in public policy-making. Second, we integrate the concept of resourcing as both a source and constitutive element of relational power. We propose a process-based model of resourcing as power that opens the black box of resourcing through the identification of three distinct phases in time: resourcing IN, resourcing WITHIN and resourcing OUT.
The discontinuance of volitional IS (i.e., information systems adopted, used and discontinued at will) has recently attracted remarkable attention from academics and practitioners alike. However, most research to date has been ahistorical. Ignoring the temporal progression can be problematic when the phenomenon under investigation is dynamic and evolving. To balance this, we adopt a stage modelling approach to understand the process ending with the technology use being discontinued by users of a popular crowdsourcing platform. Two questions guided our investigation: (1) Why do users discontinue using an IS they have volitionally adopted and used? (2) How does IS discontinuance occur over time in such context? We develop a stage model demonstrating that five stages are critical in understanding IS discontinuance: IS framing, goal pursuit, frame disruption, dormancy and quitting, after which possible switching denotes a new cycle. Furthermore, we identify two frames that help us understand why different users interpret and evaluate the technology differently – namely, the gain frame and the hedonic frame. On one hand, a gain frame is linked to the goal of improving one's resources and thus directs the user's attention to the technology's instrumental value. On the other hand, a hedonic frame is linked to the goal of having fun and thus directs the user's attention to the technology's enjoyment value. But, most importantly, we show that the technology's use lifecycle as a whole from initial use to discontinuance is shaped and guided by the user's dominant frame. Our insights elicit a number of important theoretical and practical implications.
This paper investigates the embeddedness of digital entrepreneurship in the entrepreneurs' indigenous value system by examining the influence of ‘Ubuntu’ on digital entrepreneurship activities in the South African context. We do so through an interpretive field study of two innovation clusters in South Africa. Our findings reveal Ubuntu as the basis of a community orientation to digital entrepreneurship that offers an alternative to the prevalent heroic view in which digital entrepreneurship narratives are centred around the individual entrepreneur(s). They also highlight the tensions faced by digital entrepreneurs as they attempt to uphold the Ubuntu values of humility, reciprocity, and benevolence while operating in a competitive and fast-paced environment. In addition, our study indicates that the way entrepreneurs draw on their indigenous value system is dynamic, giving rise to what we call digital Ubuntu, reflecting a reworking of Ubuntu values into their increasingly digital reality. The concept of digital Ubuntu brings to light how indigenous values can become entangled with the capabilities of digital technologies and highlights the need for indigenous perspectives to advance our understanding of the diversity of digital phenomena, such as digital entrepreneurship, across cultural contexts.
New assistive technology (AT) is at our disposal for improving the everyday life of people in need. Yet, the current way how AT is produced and provisioned is hindering certain marginalised groups in the population, particularly elderly people, to get access to it. To expedite time-to-market, reduce costs, and increase accessibility to otherwise unattainable AT, we explore if do-it-yourself (DIY) could be a feasible and desirable alternative to commercial applications. We provide answers to the following research questions: (1) For whom does the DIY approach work in the context of assistive technology? (2) Under which circumstances do DIY work? and (3) How can researchers make DIY a satisfying experience? The evidence we collected during the “iCare” project suggests that DIY attracts both, elderly people with a need-based motive and a hedonic motive. It also shows that a participatory approach and an early engagement with potential users, their family members, and informal caregivers is beneficial for improving design and use-related aspects of the AT and the DIY intervention.